Main Article Content

Peter O. O. Ottuh
Thomas Eneji Ogar
Ibiang Obono Okoi


The way allied Western nations protect their interests has been a major problem and factor in the demise of governance and democracy in the Nigerian state and other African nations. This has made Nigeria’s democracy, like that of other African countries, unstable since independence. Therefore, this article examined Western imperialism, which used religion as a tool and barrier to a strong, viable democracy in Nigeria. The article used critico-historical analysis as a method. The results showed that although Western imperialism and globalization, along with religion, have an expansionist and civilizing nature, they have also exhibited traits of dominance over other countries and systems of governance, thus making democracy weak and less rewarding. We argued that Nigeria’s democracy and religion must be independent and self-sufficient to avoid Western exploitation and imperialism and provide a context for religious inculturation. We concluded that for Nigeria and other African nations to thrive in true and strong democracies, religion should be decolonized through pulling down colonial religious presumptions, de-internationalization of religion, reorientation of religious education, restoration of indigenous languages, authentication of religious freedom, non-governmental funding of religion, and provision of theologically motivated research to a more legitimate position within religionism.    


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ottuh, Peter O. O., Thomas Eneji Ogar, and Ibiang Obono Okoi. 2023. “DEMOCRACY AND WESTERN IMPERIALISM: TOWARDS DECOLONIZING RELIGIONISM IN NIGERIA ”. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs 9 (2):312-31.
Author Biographies

Peter O. O. Ottuh, Department of Religious Studies and Philosophy Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

Professor Peter O. O. Ottuh is an Associate Professor of Philosophy of religion in the Department of Religious Studies and Philosophy, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. Ottuh holds a Ph.D degree in the philosophy of religion. His research interests include comparative religion, sociology of religion, religious ethics, religious education, Islam, and Christian theology among others. At present, Ottuh is the Associate Dean, Faculty of Arts, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. Peter Ottuh is a prolific writer whose scholarly works number over a hundred and have appeared in both national and international academic publications.

Thomas Eneji Ogar, Department of Philosophy, University of Calabar, Nigeria

Dr. Thomas Eneji Ogar is a lecturer in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Calabar, Nigeria. He graduated from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, where he bagged a B.A. (Hons) degree in philosophy in 1992. He later proceeded to the University of Ibadan, where he was awarded M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in philosophy in 1997 and 2006, respectively. As an intellectually fecund academic and astute administrator, he has rendered selfless services to the people and government of Cross River State as Director of Public Procurement and later, Secretary to the State Government (SSG) between 2007 and 2015. Dr. Ogar has been teaching, researching, and mentoring students at all levels, thereby contributing to the growth of the university. As the Head of Public Procurement Reform and later, SSG in Cross River State, Dr. Ogar has given several talks periodically that border on the reform strategy in Cross River State. He was appointed Director, Unical Consultancy Services Ltd., in 2019. He is presently serving as Chairman of the Postgraduate Committee in the Department of Philosophy. He has successfully supervised and co-supervised many graduate students inside and outside the university. He has attended conferences where he has made presentations within and outside his area. He is a member of several professional associations, including the Nigeria Philosophical Association and the Institute of Corporate Administration of Nigeria. He is married and has children.

Ibiang Obono Okoi, Department of History and International Studies, University of Calabar, Nigeria

Ibiang Obono Okoi is a lecturer in the Department of History and International Studies with research interests in boundary studies, peace and conflict, international relations, and African history. He graduated from the University of Calabar, where he obtained his Ph.D. in 2017. A widely travelled scholar with many publications in local and international learned journals He has mentored, taught, and examined undergraduate students since he was employed at the University of Calabar. Dr. Ibiang Okoi has attended many conferences and received many awards, honours, and prizes from the Department of History and International Studies, the Church-Unical Chapel of Redemption, the Students Union Government of the University of Calabar, the University of Calabar, and the Cross River State Government. He is a member of many committees within and outside the Department and Faculty of Arts. He is currently the Examinations Officer and Chairman of the Welfare Committee of the Department of History and International Studies. His ongoing research projects include "Introduction to International Studies and Diplomacy, "Themes in European History, "Nigerian Federalism and Internal Boundary Question," "The Role of the Church in Conflict Management," and "Major World Civilizations."