https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/issue/feed Journal of Liberty and International Affairs 2021-03-24T09:33:40+01:00 Goran Ilik goran.eu@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p><span class="text14_333"><span class="blue16"><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>It welcomes submissions from political sciences, international relations, international law, and related fields. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches. </span></span>The journal is <a href="http://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/ia">indexed</a> in Scopus, EBSCO, DOAJ, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIHPLUS, HeinOnline, ANVUR, Columbia International Affairs Online, ProQuest, etc.</p> <hr /> <p>ISSN: <span class="grey121">1857-9760</span> (online)</p> <p>Submit Paper by Email: contact@e-jlia.com</p> <hr /> https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/254 Cover Page and Table of Contents 2021-03-20T12:23:47+01:00 Journal of Liberty and International Affairs contact@e-jlia.com <p><span class="text14_333"><span class="blue16"><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>It welcomes submissions from political sciences, international relations, international law, and related fields. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches.&nbsp;</span></span>The journal is <a href="http://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/ia">indexed</a> in Scopus (<em>accepted for inclusion</em>), EBSCO, DOAJ, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIHPLUS, HeinOnline, ANVUR, Columbia International Affairs Online, ProQuest, etc.</p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/255 NEGATIVE CAMPAIGNING ON SOCIAL MEDIA SITES: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE 2019 AUSTRIAN NATIONAL COUNCIL ELECTION CAMPAIGN 2021-03-20T12:27:28+01:00 Stefan Lehrner stefan.lehrner@andrassyuni.hu <p><em>Election campaigns in the age of social media are rapidly changing their character. Due to the declining party loyalty of voters, once stable constituencies have become increasingly volatile and the importance of campaigning has increased. Parties are now thought to be more likely than in the past to opt for negative campaigning. This paper examines the postings that parties or top candidates made on the social media sites Facebook and Twitter during the 2019 National Council election campaign. The results suggest that - at least on social media sites - the cost-benefit analysis of the parties might turn towards negative campaigning, as the average popularity of negative campaigning posts was higher than those that were not tagged with negative campaigning.</em> <em>&nbsp;</em></p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/256 THE CURRENT POSITION OF THE FOREIGN TERRORIST FIGHTERS IN THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA 2021-03-20T12:31:56+01:00 Ice Ilijevski iilijevski@hotmail.com Katerina Krstevska Savovska katerina.krstevska@gmail.com <p><em>Terrorism with religious ideological background today is a serious global threat. The modern infrastructure and the communications of movement allowed terrorist organizations to be able to attack everywhere in the world. The issue that is a point of interest of this paper is the current situation of returning the foreign terrorist fighters to their home country or third countries and the security consequences that may arise if they are not treated properly. For a more detailed perception of this problem through the case analysis – an operative police action related to the foreign terrorist fighters, the functional aspects of the criminal prosecution bodies of the Republic of North Macedonia will be better perceived and studied. Also, a special emphasis will be placed on the strategy for the fight against violent extremism and the financing of terrorist fighters.</em></p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/257 THE COVID-19 MOBILITY IMPACTS ON THE MIGRATION FLOW IN SOUTH-EAST EUROPE: THE SITUATION IN 2021 AND BEFORE 1989 2021-03-20T12:37:11+01:00 Rossen Koroutchev rkoroutchev@yahoo.es <p><em>In this paper, we analyze the current travel restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic imposed by the countries from South-East Europe and briefly compare them with those imposed by the Central European countries. By using official data collection of displacement tracking matrices and analyzing the porosity of the borders in this part of Europe, we research the impact of COVID-19 on human mobility and the related economic and social aspects. Discussions are presented regarding this impact on the travelers, the seasonal workers from some of the selected countries, and the immigrants from the Middle-East. A formal analysis is performed relating the current travel restrictions and the travel ban during the iron curtain.</em></p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/258 PUBLIC POLICY: AN AMORPHOUS CONCEPT IN THE ENFORCEMENT OF ARBITRAL AWARDS 2021-03-20T12:40:24+01:00 Akosua Serwaah Akoto akosuaserwaah27@outlook.com <p><em>Public policy permeates the legal principles of a state and its ruling government. The justification of public policy is topical to the ethics and canons acknowledged by that state. These values are determined by the applicable political, social, economic, religious, and legal systems, which differ among states. As public policy usually best illuminates the broad area of government laws, regulations, provincial ordinances, and court decisions, the standards creating public policy alter as states develop. The motif of public policy is critical when the question of enforcement of arbitral awards suffice. There is no definite meaning of the term in the famous Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Arbitration Convention) to enforce foreign arbitral awards. Hence, this paper explores and traces some contemporary trends in defense of public policy as an exception to the enforcement of arbitral awards worldwide.</em></p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/259 ACCESS TO JUSTICE IN THE TIME OF PANDEMIC: FUNCTIONING OF LEGAL AID FORMS IN NORTH MACEDONIA 2021-03-20T12:43:34+01:00 Ivona Shushak Lozanovska susak.ivona@gmail.com Vesna Shapkoski risteska.vesna@live.com <p><em>The international community has significantly increased its focus on the improvement of justice systems around the world, in recent years. With the increase in effort and interventions in the sector, there has been a need to create tools to assess justice systems, to identify the main elements affecting the workings of the justice machinery. In a context of increasing interest and engagement in justice systems reform, the ability of citizens to access justice institutions to address their needs has come to be seen as an essential element of development, human rights, democracy, and the rule of law. The Republic of North Macedonia has been dedicated in a certain amount to improving the access to justice following these global trends. However, the pandemic has brought to the surface many obstacles in the realization of these efforts and imposed serious issues that need to be further solved. In this paper, we will elaborate on the present situation in North Macedonia from the personal experience of law clinics and civil society organizations that work and contribute closely on this issue. Furthermore, we will identify particular points that need to be advanced and relevant stakeholders to be engaged, to improve the situation, and bring justice closer to everyone.</em></p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/262 DIGITAL SERVICES AS A TOOL FOR CREATING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE BANKING SECTOR IN NORTH MACEDONIA 2021-03-20T17:19:16+01:00 Viktorija Stojkovski stojkovskiviktorija@gmail.com Blagoj Nenovski blagoj.nenovski@uklo.edu.mk <p><em>In the last few years participants of the banking sector in North Macedonia are facing big competition as a result of the increased innovations between these participants. The only way for banks to stay relevant with their operations is to create a sustainable competitive advantage. For an organization to hold out in a competitive environment, it needs to develop competitive strategies. One of the aspects of creating a competitive advantage in the banking sector is creating digital services. These services have a high impact on the banking sector and enable banks to have a competitive advantage in different manners. In addition to a theoretical approach to creating a competitive advantage in the banking sector, we conducted empirical research on how banks in North Macedonia create competitive advantage by offering digital services. This paper aims to describe the end-users attitude on digital banking services as well as the bank’s strategies on creating a competitive advantage by offering digital banking services. </em></p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/260 LEGAL POSITIVISM: AN OBSTACLE IN THE PROCESS OF STRENGTHENING THE RULE OF LAW IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 2021-03-20T12:48:48+01:00 Benjamin Nurkic bnurkic@bih.net.ba <p><em>So far, a legal positivism issue in the process of strengthening the rule of law in Bosnia and Herzegovina was not recognized by the wider academic community. The expert report on rule of law issues in Bosnia and Herzegovina addresses, for the first time, legal positivism as a part of the process of strengthening the rule of law in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper is an attempt to gather, and in one place present all the advantages offered by the constitutional system of Bosnia and Herzegovina that were not used by its institutions due to the application and implementation of legal positivism. This paper demonstrates misguided reform policies whose sole purpose was the strengthening of the rule of law in Bosnia and Herzegovina but turned to be just superficial adjustments that were unsuccessful. The paper argues the necessity of legal education reform as the key element in the process of strengthening the rule of law. Legal education reform is possible through the reduction of legal positivism impact on future lawyers, and this will be accomplished by the change in the paradigm of legal understanding among future lawyers who will make important decisions on the rule of law in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two strategic objectives must be met in terms of legal education reform for the strengthening of the rule of law: the development of a critical stance towards legal provisions in force and training in the use of international instruments during the decision-making process.</em></p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/261 THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION AND THE INTERCONNECTEDNESS WITH THE COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC AND TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN CANADA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION 2021-03-20T12:52:13+01:00 Marija Fileva marija_fileva@hotmail.com <p><em>Elimination of the trade barriers and stimulation of business activity through trade liberalization led to the expansion in the field of the global economy. There are plentiful hesitations about who gains the highest benefit from free trade, especially when it comes to the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union. Analogously, the previous mention guides to the dilemma about the trade negotiations and their position in the same agreement in which are the labor standards. Additionally, trade liberalization has influenced the creation of a close link connection between trade, labor, and globalization. This paper focuses on the effects of globalization and trade liberalization with their connection apropos the provisions from CETA; especially with an emphasis on Chapter 23: 'Trade and Labour’.</em></p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021