Journal of Liberty and International Affairs 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Goran Ilik Open Journal Systems <p><span class="text14_333"><span class="blue16"><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 regular issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>The journal also encourages the publication of occasional Special Issues. The journal aims to provide an active international forum for analysis, research, and debate in a broad range of fields. <em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs</em> welcomes submissions from political sciences, international relations, international law, and related fields. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches. </span></span><strong>The journal is <a href="">indexed</a> in SCOPUS, EBSCO, DOAJ, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIHPLUS, HeinOnline, ANVUR, Columbia International Affairs Online, ProQuest, UGC-CARE List Group II, etc.</strong></p> <hr /> <p>ISSN: <span class="grey121">1857-9760</span> (online)</p> <p><strong>Submit Paper by Email: </strong><strong><br /></strong></p> <p><a href=""><strong>Author Guidelines</strong></a></p> <hr /> Cover Page and Table of Contents 2022-01-30T12:47:39+01:00 Journal of Liberty and International Affairs <p><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>It welcomes submissions from political sciences, international relations, international law, and related fields. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches. The journal is <a href="">indexed</a> in SCOPUS, EBSCO, DOAJ, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIHPLUS, HeinOnline, ANVUR, Columbia International Affairs Online, ProQuest, UGC-CARE List Group II, etc.</p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN A CRISIS CAUSED BY THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: THE CASE OF SERBIA 2022-01-30T12:55:14+01:00 Samed Karovic Sinisa Domazet Jelena Jesic <p><em>This research examined whether there is an elaborate system of protocols, protection, and prevention in place at the local self-government level in the event of a crisis caused by an epidemic or pandemic. The core idea of this paper was to evaluate the protocol's effectiveness at the local self-government. Analysis was conducted using responses of 16 local self-government authorities. During a crisis caused by an epidemic/a pandemic of infectious illnesses, surveys were done as a cross-section documenting and detecting the current state of local self-government functioning. Methods used in the study are defining the objectives of the research, conceptualization, analysis of legal regulations, economic analysis, and decomposition of the problem. Key results and arguments of this paper expanded existing research thus there are only certain empirical data from areas that have been affected by the infectious disease caused by the epidemic/pandemic. Data was collected, processed, and systematized to serve in model formulation. As a brief conclusion, this study suggested protocol effectiveness at the local self-government level representing the idea that emergency and crisis management should be organized to preserve the health and livelihood of the population in the area affected by the pandemic of infectious diseases and thus enable the functioning of economic activities and society as a whole.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON PROTECTING THE BANK’S ASSETS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM KOSOVO BANKS 2022-01-30T13:06:40+01:00 Esat A. Durguti Emine Q. Gashi <p><em>This study aims to analyze the relationships between corporate governance instruments on the wealth of financial intermediaries in wide-ranging. The data employed in this study are secondary data from nine (9) commercial banks and covered the years 2013-2020. The approach used in data processing is a 2SLS estimation and multilevel mixed-effects for the dependent variable natural logarithm of total assets. The results provided by the econometric analysis show that board size, sovereign committees, Net Interest Margin (NIM), Non-Performing Loans (NPL’s), and equity to liabilities have an important impact on the protection of the assets of financial institutions. While surprising results have been generated in the composition of the board structure in terms of gender diversity, they have turned out to be insignificant. The originality and value of this study lie in the approach of including the characteristics of the board, as well as the combination of some financial indicators different from previous studies, which makes more comprehensive the study of the impact of board composition on increasing the wealth of banks</em><em>.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE CHALLENGING FACTORS AFFECTING WOMEN ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES 2022-01-30T13:12:18+01:00 Rimsha Khalid Mohsin Raza Anusara Sawangchai Chanyanan Somtawinpongsai <p><em>The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors such as access to finance, legal constraints, and entrepreneurial skill on women's participation in business activities. The mediating effects of self-leadership were also established as an influence on women's participation in business activities. Moreover, the study examined the moderating effect of education among self-leadership and participation of women in entrepreneurial activities. The study selected a quantitative method and structured questionnaire for the data collection. The study found a significant relationship of the effect of access to finance, legal constraints, and entrepreneurial skill with women's participation in entrepreneurial activities. Moreover, the study found a significant mediating effect of self-leadership between factors and women's participation in entrepreneurial activities as well as a significant moderating effect of education between self-leadership and participation of women in entrepreneurial activities. The study suggests that the government and other institutions should take the initiative in women's entrepreneurship that affects women's self-leadership skills. The policymakers should pay attention to the financial concerns of women in business activities.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE CURRENT MIGRANT AND REFUGEE CRISIS IN EUROPE: REFUGEE RECEPTION CENTERS IN SOUTH-EAST BULGARIA 2022-01-30T13:18:46+01:00 Rossen Koroutchev Kalin Peev <p><em>In this paper, we analyzed the current refugee crisis in Europe by discussing its main characteristics within the European context. A comparison between the different routes in Western, Central, and Eastern Mediterranean, the Western Balkans, and in general in South-Eastern Europe was done. As the main research problem, we focused on Bulgaria as an entry gate for the arriving immigrants and we presented the most recent statistics related to the illegal entries in the country. Among our objectives was the analysis of the current problems at the reception centers in the South-Eastern part of Bulgaria. An important part of our methodology consisted of direct interviews performed with the local and immigrant population at the center of Harmanli. The key results of our analysis showed that despite the attempts on the part of the officials for successful integration of the immigrants, there were still important needs for improvement. In conclusion, we suggested that the use of good practices from other countries with experience in migration policies might contribute to better integration and improvement of the mutual respect between local and migrant populations.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ITS CHANGES IN ARMENIA: CHALLENGES AND EXPECTATIONS 2022-01-30T13:23:30+01:00 Albert Hayrapetyan Liana Isayan <p><em>Social capital was the Achilles’ heel of the economic competitiveness of Armenia. In the meantime, the country made significant progress in solidifying it since the Velvet Revolution. In this article, we tried to present and analyze those elements of social capital which demonstrated significant progress in post-revolutionary Armenia, as well as the changes thereof. For that purpose, we have formulated the following research questions: What factors led to this growth, and what factors still lag? What hidden challenges can be observed through factual indicators which probably resulted from the slight decrease in the updated scores? What changes can be expected from the turbulent world and in the post-war society? The applied methodology is quantitative. In particular, to answer the research questions we used index analysis, graphic analysis, and comparison, correlation analysis techniques, pared t-test of the mathematical-statistical significance of changes, and Principal Component Analysis. The results of the analysis showed that a significant increase in the level of social capital was recorded in post-revolutionary Armenia, which was mainly due to the progress in institutional trust. Nevertheless, some revealed anomalies and encountered challenges undermined the archived progress in the growth of trust. Therefore, we put forward several recommendations.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE IMPACT OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON CONSUMER PURCHASING PREFERENCES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM KOSOVO 2022-01-30T13:27:39+01:00 Faruk Ahmeti <p><em>This paper analyses the role and the level of impact that different demographic factors have on buying preferences during the selection process between local and imported goods in developing and emerging economies, with a specific focus on the Kosovo region. A total of 630 questionnaires were distributed, from which 536 valid responses and an empirical study is applied to test the hypothesis. A probability sample (randomly selected), which was stratified by seven regions throughout the country was applied, by covering all levels of the society, cultural background, different locations (urban and rural), different levels of education, and income. Some of the respondents have shown a preference for imported goods and were willing to pay a price premium for it based on the quality offered by top producers (around 41.79%). Whereas, 58.21% of respondents prefer local products. It is proven that there is a correlation between demographic factors and buying preferences process when deciding between local and imported products. Whereas, price is considered as the main factor in the buying process in developing countries, due to the low income, whereas the level of imported products depends on the country’s ability to fulfill the local needs with local products.</em><em>&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 SMALL STATE DILEMMA: CAMBODIA BETWEEN THE ASEAN AND CHINA IN THE INDO-PACIFIC CONTEXT 2022-01-30T13:31:02+01:00 Khath Bunthorn <p><em>As a small state, Cambodia viewed the ASEAN and China as almost equally important pillars of its foreign policy. Amid the intense strategic competition in the Indo-Pacific, Cambodia faced the dilemma of how to maintain the ASEAN centrality without diplomatic cost to its key ally China, and how to balance its national interest with regional interest. In this context, the article aimed to explain the importance of the ASEAN as a cornerstone of Cambodia’s foreign policy, examine the motivations of Cambodia’s deep political embrace of the Asian giant, and underline its implications for the Indo-Pacific from the lens of small state foreign policy. The article was based on qualitative, empirical analysis that comprises primary and secondary data pertinent to the current topic. The article concluded that Cambodia leaned more towards China than it did towards the ASEAN, thus weakening its centrality in driving the broader regional architecture and that domestic politics was the primary driving force of Cambodia’s foreign policy towards that direction. At this juncture, Cambodia should step back from the present degree of its strategic engagement with China and look for ways to diversify its relations with other major powers while getting back on the democratic path and upholding human rights.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 EXTRADITION IN THE CRIMINAL PROCEDURAL LEGISLATION OF UKRAINE: COMPLIANCE WITH THE EUROPEAN STANDARDS 2022-01-30T13:33:26+01:00 Victoriia Rohalska Oksana Bronevytska Gediminas Buciunas <p><em>The importance of legal regulation of extradition in the system of legal aid in criminal proceedings is determined both by the national interests of states and the interests of international cooperation in combating transnational and international crimes. The objective of this paper was to get the answer to the main question of this research - Did the provisions of the law on extradition in Ukraine meet international standards? A set of general and special scientific, and philosophical methods of scientific research were used while preparing this article, to clarify the approaches to the extradition procedure of different countries and in practice. The results of the research suggested that the current criminal procedure legislation of Ukraine in the sphere of extradition generally meets European standards. Although, there are some gaps in the national legal regulation of extradition that may adversely affect the observance of the rights and freedoms of persons to whom it is applied.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE CURRENT STAGE OF BASEL III APPLICATION AND ITS CONSEQUENCE ON FINANCIAL STABILITY: EVIDENCE FROM KOSOVO 2022-01-30T13:42:46+01:00 Muhamet J. Spahiu <p><em>The study aims to explore the divergences around the implementation of the Basel III agreement, since this agreement is considered the core of the international regulatory response to the financial crisis, setting the strictest criteria for capital structure and risk assessment. This paper explains the current level of legislation that applies in Kosovo, as well as possible divergences with the criteria set by Basel III. It is argued that the national authority, explicitly the CBK, to decide on the implementation of Basel III, had to agree on three aspects and potentially conflicting between them: the stability of the banking sector, competition, and care for economic growth. Finally, the study concluded that Kosovo is implementing Basel III regulations with greater ease and attention, contributing to banking sector stability, competitiveness, and economic growth.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE POWER OF SMALL EU MEMBER STATES AFTER BREXIT: HOW POWERFUL IS THE VISEGRAD GROUP? 2022-01-30T13:46:35+01:00 Tomas Kajanek <p><em>The power of individual EU Member States has been changing over the past decades as a result of revisions to the voting systems and the enlargements of the European Union. The present article analyses the development of the voting power of individual Member States in the Council of the European Union before and after the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union. We use the calculation of the standardized Banzhaf power index to calculate the legislative power of the Member States. The calculations recorded in the table point to changes in the weights of national votes caused by Brexit. The article pays special attention to the Visegrad Group, which we define within the European Union as an informal group consisting of four Central European states - the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and the Slovak Republic. The results indicate a significant growth of the voting power in Poland and more moderate growth in the other three Visegrad Group countries which contributes to the shift in the voting equilibrium within the ordinary legislative procedure of the European Union.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 POST-PULWAMA INDO-PAK CONFLICT: RECONNOITERING THE ROLE OF SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION 2022-01-30T13:49:35+01:00 Bawa Singh Aslam Khan Jagmeet Bawa Balinder Singh <p><em>Terrorism has emerged as one of the major challenges for the Eurasian regional peace, security, and cooperation. Keeping these challenges in perspective, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) was established to eliminate the menace of terrorism, fundamentalism, and secessionism. Against this background, the main objectives of this paper are to examine how terrorism emerged as a major determining factor in the Indo-Pak relations and how the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), was failed to play its effective role in the Indo-Pak conflict given the Pulwama terror attack. For this research, descriptive and analytical methods were used and the data was collected from secondary sources. The major findings of this article are that terrorism has emerged as one of the major determinants of Indo-Pak relations and the same has become a major challenge for the SCO to resolve the issue. Against the background of terror attacks, it was anticipated that the SCO would play a crucial role to pacify the situation. However, the role played by the SCO in this situation proved marked as a Whack-a-Mole.</em><em>&nbsp; </em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 RURAL DEPOPULATION IN SPAIN: NEXT GENERATION EU AS A STIMULUS TO ACCELERATE THE TRANSFORMATION 2022-01-30T13:55:14+01:00 Marcin Roman Czubala Ostapiuk Monica Puente Regidor Carlos Corullon Hermosa <p><em>The main objective of this study was to examine the situation of depopulation in Spain. Also, to highlight the importance of digital transformation and the funds provided through the Next Generation EU (NGEU) to fight against this phenomenon. Based on data from the National Institute of Statistics (INE), an empirical investigation about the current state of population abandonment in Spain has been carried out. Moreover, the Digitization Index (DiGiX) has been used to obtain a territorial vision about the digitization degree of the Autonomous Communities (CCAA). Finally, the estimates of the Spanish executive set out in the National Recovery, Transformation and Resilience Plan (RTRP) have been used to underline the importance of Next Generation EU resources to fight the problem of ‘empty Spain’. That was to see that mentioned country is currently at the head of the ‘demographic deserts’ of the EU. Likewise, the Recovery Plan for Europe, and its digital axe, constitute one of the key factors to combat the population abandonment of the Spanish rural areas. In other words, an important approach, which addresses the wide deficiencies in the literature on the subject, is making this research highly relevant and interesting.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 CHINA’S DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE TO THE WESTERN BALKANS AND ITS IMPACT ON DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE AND DECISION-MAKING 2022-01-30T14:00:52+01:00 Ana Krstinovska <p><em>China’s development assistance to the Western Balkans has been little researched and aid-funded projects are often mistermed as Chinese investments. This article aimed to shed light on specific ‘China Aid’ disbursement and management procedures by examining the signed agreements and contracted projects in five countries - Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, N. Macedonia, and Serbia during the period 2000-2020. The objective was to determine the impact of China’s development assistance on democratic governance and decision-making. Attride-Stirling’s thematic networks tool was used to analyze the procedures in each project cycle phase and their compliance with the principles of good governance and aid effectiveness. The findings suggest that the assistance, shaped by Chinese rules in combination with Western Balkans domestic agency, is marked by the opacity of the procedures, lack of accountability, disregard for rules in public finance management, and public procurement. Moreover, China could use its grant and loan agreements to influence sovereign decision-making on issues that affect China’s interests. To conclude, although China’s development assistance to the Western Balkans could benefit the recipients’ economic development, it also constrains their democratic governance and decision-making and serves China’s foreign policy interests.</em><em>&nbsp; </em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 RADICAL ISLAMISM: TRAJECTORIES OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AND ABUSES IN AFRICA 2022-01-30T14:03:24+01:00 Peter O.O. Ottuh Felix O. Erhabor <p><em>In Africa, radical and extremist Muslims are striving to transform society through violent change, claiming that African rulers are dictatorial and anti-Islamic; as a result, many African countries are experiencing serious human rights violations and abuses. Therefore, this paper examined radical Islamism and its trajectories of human rights violations and abuses in Africa and proffered workable solutions to the dilemma. To achieve the above aim, the paper employed historical and evaluative methods. The historical method was used to critically review the scholarly literature on radical Islamism and its human rights violations and abuses antecedents in Africa. At the evaluative level, the paper critically discussed the impact of human rights violations and abuses on the African nations and their citizens. The paper revealed that radical Islamism in Africa is driven by bad political leadership, poverty, poor education, unemployment, and religious exclusivism among others. The paper concluded that good governance, economic enhancement, and religious inclusiveness are key tools in discouraging and curbing radical Islamists in African countries.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 COLLECTIVE MEMORY IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTENT RECONFIGURATION: THE ANECDOTES OF THE SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET ERA 2022-01-30T14:06:59+01:00 Nataliia Komykh Yaroslav Zharko <p><em>The article considers the phenomenon of collective memory as a resource of social interaction, legitimization of social practices. In particular, attention is paid to aspects of reconfiguration of the content of the collective memory of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Societies remember differently. Ukrainian society has a traumatic social experience gained as a result of the transformational processes of the collapse of the Soviet Union, the formation of an independent state, a democratic political order. The phenomenon of memory is considered in more detail on the example of the results of the study of collective memory reflected in anecdotes. The authors noted that the anecdote is a mechanism for translating cultural meanings into the memory of societies. The anecdote represents the symbolic systems of objective manifestations of collective memory. Based on the analysis of the results of the research by the method of content analysis using the online program Voyant Tools, reconfigurations of the content of anecdotes were recorded: from political to private; from local toponymic discourse to global; from ridiculing the policy of the state to the experience of society through the humor of the historical events of the formation of independent Ukraine.</em><em>&nbsp; </em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 AFGHANISTAN UNDER TALIBAN: A NEW REGIME POSES A THREAT TO INTERNATIONAL STABILITY 2022-01-30T14:10:14+01:00 Valeri Modebadze <p><em>The purpose of this study was to see whether the Taliban regime poses a threat to the international community. The research primarily examined the threats that the formation of a theocratic regime in Afghanistan poses to neighboring countries and the international community. With regards to research methods, a document analysis method was used to obtain valid information and to analyze and describe the complex situation in Afghanistan. A wide array of documents and scholarly articles were analyzed to obtain reliable and objective information. This research revealed that the Taliban has not changed at all and still rules Afghanistan with medieval methods and strategies. Since the Taliban takeover of Afghanistan, the economic situation has deteriorated considerably and people face severe hardship. Therefore, hundreds of thousands of Afghans want to leave their homeland and migrate to the West. The Taliban violates constantly human rights and discriminates against women, ethnic and religious minorities. The Taliban has transformed Afghanistan into a narco-state. Neighboring countries fear that Afghanistan might become a hotbed of terrorism and extremism again.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE CHALLENGES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORMS IN KOSOVO IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROINTEGRATION PROCESS 2022-01-30T14:13:42+01:00 Artan Fejzullahu Besard Belegu <p><em>The phase of transition and the ambition for EU membership has caused the administration and the Government of Kosovo to act differently, allowing it to address a variety of issues that have brought Kosovo's state administration closer to the European family. Kosovo has not remained indifferent to its claim to join the EU, therefore it has undertaken the public administration reform. The results of the reform are being felt slowly. Problems in administration reform over the past few years have been; political influence on public administration recruitment and independent decision-making, size of administration, lack of professionalism, etc. The objectives of this paper consist of a) reflecting the real situation of the public administration reform process, b) analyzing the results of the administration reform over the years, c) analyzing the harmonization of legal acts and the transformation of the public administration of Kosovo with acts legal and EU policies. The research methods used in this study were normative, analytical, and statistical methods. Reforming and modernizing the public sector remains one of Kosovo's most pressing challenges on the road to EU membership.</em></p> <p><em> </em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 TOWARDS GRADUAL INTEGRATION OF THE WESTERN BALKANS INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION: THE CASE OF SERBIA 2022-01-30T14:17:34+01:00 Milos Petrovic <p><em>This paper examined whether the revised enlargement methodology represented another step in the direction of gradual EU membership of the Western Balkans. The research problem was based on considerations that the EU enlargement domain has for years been characterized by political stagnation. The research aimed to show that a differentiated accession approach might have been beneficial for Serbia, as a front-runner membership candidate. In terms of methods, the author analyzes the concepts and the applicability of the ‘three-tiered accession’ and ‘staged accession’, having in mind the recently altered enlargement methodology. The author argues that the gradual integration would have been beneficial for two reasons: 1) validating the candidates’ already achieved progress, offering tangible incentives, and potentially preventing the democratic backsliding; 2) taking the pre-scheduled accession dates off the table. Considering that the EU is unlikely to expand further, the author concludes that the gradual membership concept might apply solely to the WB, while also reassuring the Member States regarding the primacy of individual merits and excluding the speedy accessions proposals.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 2022-01-30T14:20:24+01:00 Mirvan Xhemaili <p><em>The primary language of international relations and diplomacy is English. The representatives of international bodies communicate in the English language. It is vital to establish English as the official language for international organizations in facilitating more efficient collaboration internationally. English dominance in international communication becomes increasingly apparent. This study aimed at gaining a more in-depth understanding of the significance of the English language. It also aimed at identifying, describing, and explaining the importance of the English language in public diplomacy and international relations. The researcher used the descriptive research method in the study, notably; secondary data were used for collecting reliable conclusions for the research. The findings suggested that the adoption of formulaic language, particularly, idioms and idiomatic expressions to further embellish the phrases used in the arena of international relations or policy is a peculiarity of the English language. The study concluded that formulaic language and the adoption and usage of idioms is a distinguishing feature that diplomats and those who have a career in international law and international relations should master.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 TURKISH AND LIBYAN REFUGEE DEALS: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION’S SECURITARIAN IRREGULAR MIGRATION POLICY 2022-01-30T14:23:51+01:00 Hikmet Menguaslan Murat Necip Arman <p><em>This article critically analyzed the Turkish and Libyan refugee deals. We argued that these deals proved to be unsustainable policy frameworks by focusing on their practical outcomes regarding humanitarian objectives. We utilized the 'Fortress Europe' concept to demonstrate how the European Union’s security concerns shaped the framework of these deals. Our study elaborated on two main arguments: First, these deals have undermined both Turkey and Libya’s migration management capacities. Second, these deals failed to provide adequate mechanisms supervising the enforcement of humanitarian objectives. We focus on two dynamics leading to the failure of these deals. First, the EU’s prioritization of security concerns has resulted in overlooking the irregular migration’s humanitarian and societal costs to the third countries. Second, the EU’s securitarian strategy contributed to further politicization and securitization of cooperation on migration. In conclusion, we argue that the EU should revise its securitarian strategy on irregular migration to include a more effective multi-lateral and multi-dimensional framework that focuses more on humanitarian issues while ensuring that the responsibilities will be fairly shared between the EU and third countries based on their capacities.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN CENTRAL ASIA: INSIGHTS FROM KAZAKHSTAN, KYRGYZSTAN, AND UZBEKISTAN 2022-01-30T14:35:21+01:00 Aram Terzyan <p><em>The objective of this paper is to explore the political implications of the Covid-19 pandemic in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. Studies displayed that although these governments varied in their initial response to the pandemic, all three underwent a uniform experience as to its broader effect of amplified authoritarianism. The public health crisis was utilized as a pretext to consolidate autocratic power, suppress regime criticism, and restrict the political rights and freedoms of citizens. Of particular concern were implications on media and civil society organizational efforts, statuses of detainees, ethnic minority rights, and freedoms of assembly and speech. This paper is an in-depth case analysis that uses policy analysis and process tracing to examine the Central Asian countries’ response to Covid-19 and its effects on human rights and political freedoms in the named countries. It concludes that despite the changes in leadership and relative progress towards democratization, authoritarian patterns ensued and changed form during the pandemic period in these Central Asian countries.</em></p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022