Journal of Liberty and International Affairs https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia <p><span class="text14_333"><span class="blue16"><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 regular issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>This journal adheres to a regular publishing schedule, occasionally featuring <a href="https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/spiss">special issues</a>. The journal strives to offer a dynamic international platform for analysis, research, and debate, primarily in the fields of political science, international relations, and law. Additionally, contributions from economics and related fields are also encouraged. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches. </span></span></p> <p><span class="text14_333"><span class="blue16">The journal has adopted a rolling submission and publication model called Continuous Article Publishing (CAP). By adopting this innovative model starting with Vol. 10, No. 2, 2024, the <em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs</em> positions itself at the forefront of academic publishing, offering a dynamic and responsive platform that better serves the needs of the scholarly community. This means that each article, after peer review and acceptance, will be published immediately within the particular issue, including a digital object identifier (DOI) and page numbers</span></span>.</p> <p><strong>The journal is <a href="https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/ia">indexed</a> in EBSCO, DOAJ/DOAJ Seal, Crossref, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIHPLUS, HeinOnline, CIAO, ProQuest, ANVUR (Class A), WorldCat, Dimensions, etc.</strong></p> <hr /> <p><strong>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | JLIA<br /></strong></p> <p>First publication: April 2015</p> <p>ISSN: 1857-9760 (online) | Open Access | Language: English</p> <p>JLIA uses the plagiarism screening tool: <a href="https://www.plagscan.com/en/">PlagScan</a></p> <p>Call for Papers (Rolling Deadlines ): You can submit your article at any time throughout the year. The rolling submission deadlines, corresponding with the publication of journal issues, are as follows:</p> <p>Submission Round 1: 10 January</p> <p>Submission Round 2: 10 April</p> <p>Submission Round 2: 10 September</p> <p>Note: <em>If your article is submitted after the final deadline for the volume, it will be considered for the following year’s volume. The sooner you submit, the sooner your article will begin the peer review process. Early submission means that your article may be published with a full citation as soon as it is ready.</em></p> <p>The authors are strongly encouraged to read the <a href="https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/rp">Review Policy</a> section, the <a href="https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/artgu">Article Guidelines</a>, and the <a href="https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/PE">Publication Ethics</a> section carefully before preparing an article for <a href="https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/about/submissions">submission</a>, as well as to check the article for conformance before submitting it for publication.</p> <p><strong>The authors must complete the registration process with the JLIA before submitting. If already registered, authors can directly log in and initiate the submission through the <a href="https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/about/submissions">online submission system</a>.</strong></p> <p>Contact: contact@e-jlia.com</p> <hr /> <p><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs</em> is <a href="https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/ia">indexed</a> in:</p> <p><sub>EBSCO; Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ); ANVUR (Class A journal); Social Science Open Access Repository (SSOAR); Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL); Columbia International Affairs Online (CIAO); iDiscover (University of Cambridge); SOLO (Search Oxford Libraries Online); Szczepanski List; Dimensions; Baidu Scholar; HeinOnline; Crossref; Google Scholar; ProQuest (Social Science Premium Collection); ProQuest (Political Science Database); DHET Accredited Journals; Scilit; European Reference Index for the Humanities and the Social Sciences (ERIH PLUS); Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE); HARVARD Library (HOLLIS+); SHERPA/RoMEO; SemanticScholar; Mir@bel; WorldCat; JournalTOCs; CORE (COnnecting REpositories); Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals (MIAR); The Open Access Digital Library; Virtual Library Eastern Europe (ViFaOst); Universiteitsbibliotheek Gent; Genamics JournalSeek; J-Gate; JURN Directory; Index of Turkish Education; Electronic Journals Library; Digital Library of University of Maribor; Stanford University Libraries; Hesburgh Libraries, University of Notre Dame; Ghent University Library; ingentaCONNECT; ILSE — IPN Library Search Engine; Universitätsbibliothek Ilmenau; Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN); WILBERT; SFX by Ex Libris | Charles University in Prague; Publikationsserver der RWTH Aachen University; CiteSeerX; AccessON; OUCI; ScienceOpen; DeepDyve; Scite; Scispace; ChronosHub; LIVIVO; OpenAlex; NAVER; Research4Life; ZDB; ROAD; SUDOC; FATCAT; Library of Congress; ACNP – Catalogo Italiano dei Periodici<br /></sub></p> <hr /> en-US goran.eu@gmail.com (Goran Ilik) btsema@gmail.com (Aleksandar Kotevski) Wed, 12 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Censorship from Plato to Social Media. The Complexity of Social Media’s Content Regulation and Moderation Practices https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1498 <p>This section does not require an abstract.</p> Daniella Huszar Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1498 Fri, 05 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Reviewers for Volume 10, Number 2, 2024 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1506 <p>This section does not require an abstract.</p> Journal of Liberty and International Affairs Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1506 Fri, 05 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Front Matter https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1472 <p>This section does not require an abstract.</p> Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1472 Wed, 12 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Table of Contents https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1505 <p>This section does not require an abstract.</p> Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1505 Fri, 05 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200 The “Revival” of PiS: The Transformation of Campaign Strategies from the Kaczynski Twins to Andrzej Duda https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1479 <p><em>The paper analyzes the campaign strategies of the PiS political party during the Polish elections from 2009 to 2020. It examines how the gradual modernization of communication strategies and the adoption of a less aggressive narrative contributed to the party’s revival after a decline in support caused by the political crisis of 2007 and the death of leader Lech Kaczynski in 2010. The research aims to identify the changes in campaigning that contributed to regaining electoral success since the 2015 national elections. The analysis is based on audio-visual materials produced by PiS for the elections during both the “crisis” period (2009-2013) and the “revival” period (2014-2020), allowing for a comparative analysis of the main changes between these two periods. Through content analysis of these materials, the study investigates the topics, genres, formats, national and European dimensions, personalization strategies, and use of negative advertising.</em></p> Melissa Stolfi Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1479 Wed, 12 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Skilled Migration Before and During the Covid-19 Pandemic https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1481 <p><em>This article analyses the role of skilled migration before and during the Covid-19 pandemic, emphasizing the health sector. Using official statistics, it investigates the evolution of the migrant skilled professionals from this sector over the last decade and the difficulties they face in different European countries. A special analysis is devoted to recognizing and validating the professional credentials of migrant healthcare workers and their crucial importance nowadays. Some comparisons have been made between the health sector in the UK and Spain by pointing out the importance of foreign doctors and nurses in mitigating the pandemic’s effect even during periods of lockdown and border closures. The conclusion of this research confirms the necessity of a collective and sustainable response to address the global shortage of health professional regulations and bureaucratic difficulties related to work permissions and authorizations in the post-Covid-19 recovery era</em>.</p> Rossen Koroutchev Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1481 Wed, 12 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Maritime Security: The Pillar of India’s IPOI in Southeast Asia and Its Implications for Vietnam https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1482 <p><em>This article analyses the maritime security pillar of India’s Indo-Pacific Outlook Initiative (IPOI) in Southeast Asia and its far-reaching impact on Vietnam. The study utilizes the analytical framework of neorealism, liberalism, and constructivism to examine the objectives and intentions of India’s IPOI and ASEAN’s AOIP in the context of strategic competition in the Indo-Pacific. The author’s findings reveal a significant convergence of strategic interests between IPOI and AOIP, which brings numerous and tremendous benefits to Vietnam, such as fostering the Vietnam-India comprehensive strategic partnership and equipping Vietnam to tackle challenges from the rise of China. The rise of China, strategic competition among major powers, and the increasing significance of the Indo-Pacific have spurred India and ASEAN to develop their visions to adapt to the Indo-Pacific concept. However, the implementation of IPOI in Southeast Asia still faces several limitations, primarily due to the divergent understanding and goals of IPOI, which places a premium on maritime security, and AOIP, which is more focused on naval cooperation. Furthermore, differences in the perceptions of India and ASEAN on maritime security also contribute to these limitations, highlighting the need for further research and development</em>.</p> Cuong Pham Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1482 Wed, 12 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Beyond Traditional Boundaries: From State-Centric Diplomacy to More Participatory Approaches for a Sustainable Future in the Western Balkans https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1493 <p><em>The contemporary era has witnessed a significant evolution in diplomacy, transitioning from traditional state-led approaches to more open, multilateral methods and channels. This study evaluates the effectiveness and suitability of the new diplomatic disciplines, particularly in the Western Balkans region, which grapples with numerous structural challenges, ethnic and political divisions, and external interference. The influence of traditional state-centric diplomacy in this region necessitates a shift towards a more participatory, multi-stakeholder approach to promoting positive peace and cooperation. This reframing of diplomacy emphasizes the emergence of regionalism and multilateralism through multi-track diplomacy, involving private individuals, non-governmental organizations, societies, and engaged citizens to foster understanding through dialogue, cooperation, and deeper interaction. The analysis highlights the influence of innovative diplomatic channels interlinked and entrenched through a capillary diplomacy framework essential for regional application while exploring the constraints of traditional methods. It advocates for fresh diplomatic strategies and collaborative initiatives in the Western Balkans through a win-win formula and a participatory model based on multi-track diplomacy – repurposed and redesigned to advance the reconciliation process, rapprochement, and raise public awareness through effective communication in line with the EU integration goals and advancements. </em></p> <p><em> </em></p> Elira Luli, Mirela Metushaj Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1493 Fri, 05 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Exploring the Effectiveness of the Human Rights Court in Indonesia: A Call for Humanitarian Action https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1494 <p><em>Indonesia’s Human Rights Court, established under Law No. 26/2000, has faced criticism due to persistent unresolved cases, highlighting flaws in its legal foundation. The Court’s performance revealed that Indonesia has been ineffective in resolving serious human rights violation cases. This research emphasizes two main points: 1) exploring human rights enforcement in Indonesia based on the effectiveness of the Human Rights Court’s performance, and 2) scrutinizing the context of humanitarian intervention in cases of gross human rights violations in Indonesia. The article utilized a normative juridical research approach, followed by a descriptive analysis through a literature study. The research illustrated that human rights enforcement in Indonesia was inadequate, often stalling at the inquiry stage. Trials for the 1984 Tanjung Priok massacre, East Timor, and Abepura resulted in acquittals, raising doubts about the effectiveness of the Human Rights Court’s Law (No. 26/2000). Furthermore, humanitarian intervention was deemed necessary to address these unresolved violations, viewed not as a violation of sovereignty but as a means to enhance human rights protection. This requires national and international cooperation, focusing on resolving cases rather than debating jurisdiction. </em></p> Ria Wierma Putri, Yunita Maya Putri, Eddy Rifai Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1494 Fri, 05 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Control of Irregular Migration and Suppression of People Smuggling on the Western Balkan Route https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1495 <p><em>The subject of this paper is irregular migration and modern models of preventing the smuggling of migrants on the part of the Western Balkan route through the Republic of Serbia. The goal is to show how the new strategic approach of the Serbian police in this area can give excellent results, that the application of modern methods of policing and technical means are aimed at preventing the smuggling of migrants, i.e., the illegal movement and transport of migrants across the state border and state territory to go to countries of the European Union. Based on the conducted research, the authors have drawn certain conclusions: 1) effectiveness, efficiency, and economy in the area of suppression of irregular migration can be achieved by applying an adequate criminal strategy, 2) the new strategic approach led to the discovery and arrest of a large number of people smugglers and the discovery of illegal firearms, 3) the use of modern technical means, coordinated, joint work of different police units and management from a single center by a strategic level manager directly in charge of combating irregular migration and human smuggling in a particular area (territory) which is estimated to be a hotspot of criminal activity, is a prerequisite for success. </em></p> Bojan Jankovic, Sasa Markovic, Aleksandar Ivanov Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1495 Fri, 05 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Dissecting the Political Landscape of War-Torn Ukraine: Between Internal Challenges and External Threats https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1496 <p><em>This paper explores the political landscape of war-torn Ukraine, focusing on the country’s core domestic problems. The war in Ukraine has led to a significant deterioration of Ukraine’s political landscape. While victory on the battlefield is Ukraine’s utmost priority, escalating internal problems pose additional challenges. With Ukraine having obtained EU candidate status, these problems have moved to a new level on the EU’s membership agenda. The most urgent of these is endemic corruption, which has gained fresh momentum during the war and has put foreign aid at risk. As the costs of the war grow, international pressure on the Ukrainian authorities to show better results increases. Accountability and transparency should become the guiding principles of the reconstruction and recovery processes to maintain Western support and ensure effective postwar reconstruction. </em></p> Aram Terzyan Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1496 Fri, 05 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200 The Changing Conceptual Landscape of the Russian War in Ukraine (2014-Present) and Syria (2011-Present) https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1497 <p><em>The main goal of this paper is to present and compare the main developments in the Russian wars in Ukraine and Syria by considering the main patterns, parallels, and changing trajectories that could shed more light onto both of these war zones, which are highly interlinked due to Russia’s leading role in both. It analytically, comparatively, and contemplatively approaches those developments by highlighting multiple similarities and the main differences in global responses to these conflicts. Both conflicts should be seen as highly unpredictable, dynamic, and unnecessarily extended asymmetric proxy wars in which global powers test their new military doctrines and their competitors' responses to their unconventional actions and other unsolicited and indirect interferences in the local dynamism of both wars. Unlike in Syria, the Ukrainian war zone is wholly transformative and ready for the adoption of partial hybridization and the utilization of the new software-defined warfare in combination with conventional weapons. </em></p> Piotr Pietrzak Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/1497 Fri, 05 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200