Journal of Liberty and International Affairs <p><span class="text14_333"><span class="blue16"><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 regular issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>The journal also encourages the publication of occasional Special Issues. <em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs</em> welcomes submissions from political sciences, international relations, international law, and related fields. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches. </span></span><strong>The journal is <a href="">indexed</a> in SCOPUS, EBSCO, DOAJ, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIHPLUS, HeinOnline, ANVUR, Columbia International Affairs Online, ProQuest, UGC-CARE List Group II, etc.</strong></p> <hr /> <p>ISSN: <span class="grey121">1857-9760</span> (online)</p> <p><strong>Submit Paper by Email: </strong><strong><br /></strong></p> <p><a href=""><strong>Author Guidelines</strong></a></p> <hr /> en-US (Goran Ilik) (Aleksandar Kotevski) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 19:48:16 +0100 OJS 60 Cover Page and Table of Contents <p><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>It welcomes submissions from political sciences, international relations, international law, and related fields. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches.&nbsp;The journal is <a href="">indexed</a> in SCOPUS, EBSCO, DOAJ, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIHPLUS, HeinOnline, ANVUR, Columbia International Affairs Online, ProQuest, UGC-CARE List Group II, etc.</p> Journal of Liberty and International Affairs Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY AS A TOOL TO SUBSTITUTE IN-PERSON VISITS IN THE SERBIAN PRISON SYSTEM DURING THE COVID-19 RESTRICTIVE MEASURES <p><em>In an attempt to properly address one of the greatest challenges for prison administrations around the world facing Covid-19, namely, to ensure regular communication between the inmates and their families, the Serbian Penal Administration, supported by German NGO Help e.V, procured the ICT equipment aimed at substituting the in-person visits. The author decided to assess the impact of this pilot project on the right of inmates to communicate with their family members, exploring their attitudes and the attitudes of professionals/prison staff that work with them, to get both perspectives. The results of the research showed that the online communication ensured through the pilot project has significantly contributed to preserving contacts and family relations in the changing environment of the Covid-19 restrictive measures, although it cannot completely replace family visits based on, in-person contact. However, the research also led to some of the remaining obstacles to a wider application of this, substitutive approach, among others, concerning the lack of IT literacy and the both of inmates and their family members, and to the life in poverty and/or in remote country areas. Additionally, this research identified a remaining need for further financial investment in the IT equipment to ensure adequate frequency and duration of communication, but also the need to revise/upgrade an existing treatment approach to integrating modern technologies/IT literacy as tools to contribute to the effectiveness of inmates’ reintegration.</em></p> Milica Kolakovic-Bojovic Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 ALGORITHMS AND FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS: THE CASE OF AUTOMATED ONLINE FILTERS <p><em>The information that we see on the internet is increasingly tailored by automated ranking and filtering algorithms used by online platforms, which significantly interfere with the exercise of fundamental rights online, particularly the freedom of expression and information. The EU’s regulation of the internet prohibits general monitoring obligations. The paper first analyses the CJEU’s case law which has long resisted attempts to require internet intermediaries to use automated software filters to remove infringing user uploads. This is followed by an analysis of article 17 of the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market, which effectively requires online platforms to use automated filtering to ensure the unavailability of unauthorized copyrighted content. The Commission’s guidance and the AG’s opinion in the annulment action are discussed. The conclusion is that the regulation of the filtering algorithms themselves will be necessary to prevent private censorship and protect fundamental rights online.</em></p> Matija Damjan Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND CHALLENGES OF THE SOCIETIES IN TRANSITION: THE CASE OF KOSOVO <p><em>The development of new technologies is considered a revolution because it has interconnected micro and macro cultures, has influenced socio-economic developments, and is gradually transferring our social life to the virtual one. Today, life without information technology is unimaginable and every communication is done through new technologies. On the other hand, the privacy and misuse of personal data are directly endangering personal freedom. The Balkan countries are as well part of this technological development but are also heavily challenged by different unidentified risks. Kosovo has a young population and is considered to have the youngest population in Europe. About 96.4% of households have access to the internet. This paper aims to analyze the development of new technologies in societies in transition, especially in Kosovo, the challenges, the issue of privacy, and the future of information technology. The methodology applied within this paper is the study of literature and the development of qualitative research. The findings demonstrate that Kosovo has quickly embraced information technology, digitized its public services, and installed some of the region's most cutting-edge technologies, such as 3D printers, but it is also highly vulnerable to cyber-attacks.</em></p> Ferdi Kamberi, Arianit Abazi Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 EVALUATION OF DIGITAL MARKETING PERFORMANCE IN ELECTRONIC GOODS INDUSTRY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY <p><em>The last two decades have witnessed a skyrocketing growth in digital marketing that made customers interested in purchasing products particularly electronic goods. However, it is not known whether those customers attained satisfaction through this purchase. To confirm the fact, this research has attempted to analyze the retention rate of digital marketing customers who have experience in purchasing electronic goods and for this purpose, 603 consumers of Tamilnadu (India) who have the purchase experience on a digital marketing basis were selected on a simple random basis. Tools like structural equation modeling, percentage analysis, one-way ANOVA, and paired sample ‘t’ test were applied and the result revealed that only customer satisfaction has mediated the influence of digital marketing on their loyalty but, the important parameter, trust has a negative role between these constructs. Marketers need to create trust about the product with the actual features as informed in digital marketing so that consumers can reach a high level of satisfaction and this may lead to a positive word of mouth. In addition, this enhances sales and enables marketers to attain profit maximization along with building consumer confidence.</em></p> Saravanan Rangaswamy, Logeshkumar Sivasubramaniam, Vijayanand Sundaram, Murali Pitchaimuthu Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS AND THEIR FUTURE IMPACT ON EXERCISING OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN SOCIETY AND POLITICS <p><em>This research focuses on evaluating the impacts of technological advancements and their extended future aspects on exercising human rights in society and politics. Furthermore, the current prospects of technological advancements contribute a great portion to the advancement of society and culture. However, it also emerges and involves politics in the scenario. The research aims to explore different aspects of modern technological advancements in terms of determining the possible implementations of technology in society and politics. As a part of the research methodology, it can be highlighted that the research follows a primary research method. It collects primary quantitative data through an online survey by following a random sampling procedure. The sample population of the online survey was 50, and the ultimate sample size of this research is 39. The significance of the research lies over the identification of the technological advancements as it is the major component that impacts the future social and political community. </em></p> Krishanveer Singh, Ajit Singh Negi Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY AND HEALTH ADVOCACY ON COVID-19: A CASE STUDY OF TWITTER HANDLES OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION AND MINISTRY OF HEALTH OF INDIA <p><em>The article has intended to study the action of Twitter-based media advocacy promoted by the Ministry of Health (MOH) of the Government of India, and World Health Organization (WHO) during the Covid-19 pandemic. Its goal was to assess the degree of the WHO and MOH's media campaigning for Covid-19, as well as the public's perception of this advocacy. In this regard, mixed methods have been used for data collection where a survey has been conducted with 125 respondents, who use Twitter, from Kolkata (India) with the help of random sampling. A content analysis of two well-known Twitter accounts was conducted, which helped to reflect the current trends that they follow. The findings of this research have reflected the choice of medium preferred by the respondents for receiving news and information during the Covid-19 pandemic. It has also helped to identify the Twitter handles and tweets they mostly follow and thereby the major factors influencing their choice. The outcome of this research has helped to study whether Twitter can be used for institutionalized health communication or not in the future.</em></p> Rajesh Das, Ipsita Banerjee Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 NEXT GENERATION EUROPEAN UNION AND THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION: AN OPPORTUNITY FOR SPAIN <p><em>The main objective of this article is to analyze the importance of digital transformation and the funds provided by way of the Next Generation EU (NGEU) plan, taking into account the Spanish case. Through the working hypothesis, it was established that the Iberian country has a wide margin for improvement in the context of digitalization. Likewise, that NGEU forms a key impulse for the recovery from the crisis caused by Covid-19, as well as for the implementation of new digital technologies in Spain. The use of the Digital Economy and Society Index, developed by the European Commission, has allowed us to carry out empirical research. The evaluation of the current situation and the progress of Spain in the field of analysis, as well as the putting it in perspective regarding the rest of the Member States, have been undertaken. Moreover, the Eurostat database has been employed, in addition to the estimations of the Spanish executive exposed through the Digital Agenda 2025, to examine investment in R&amp;D and intangible assets and try to assess the importance of the EU recovery fund for Spain's development and progress in the digitization framework. Finally, the hypothesis and the objectives have been achieved. </em></p> Marcin Roman Czubala Ostapiuk, Miguel Ángel Benedicto Solsona Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 CHINESE SOCIAL CREDIT SYSTEM: NEW CHALLENGES FOR THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY? <p><em>The Social Credit system (SCS) in China is being applied in an increasing number of areas of everyday life. This system is built around rewarding and punishing specific forms of social behavior. The question arises whether this system is a new challenge to the right to privacy. The study, which is supported by literature, sheds light on how novel this thought is. This paper uses the comparative method, normative method, and legal-logical methods of induction and deduction. According to the research, the SCS in basic is a state project. The key distinctions between the SCS and similar systems in Western countries include the impact on individuals, state dependency, punitive policy, the breadth of consequences, and cultural differences. In addition, one of the tools of the SCS in China is ‘shame’, which is focused on maintaining harmonious relations within a society. In the West, the focus is more on the citizens’ rights.</em></p> Sinisa Domazet, Majida Lubura, Ivona Susak Lozanovska, Nina Ilik Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 SOME HUMAN AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF ONLINE CONTENT REGULATION <p><em>The amount of newly uploaded content on the internet is growing daily: 60 seconds on the web in 2021 consist of more than 500 hours of content uploaded on YouTube, 695,000 stories shared on Instagram, and nearly 70 million messages sent via WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger. The vast majority of them is legal content, but a slice is illegal or harmful. The article analyses the situation and the problems of both human and AI moderation, then it gives an answer how to handle the content on the internet with a shared usage of human and AI moderation as they could perfectly complement each other in a long term.</em></p> Gergely Gosztonyi Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND THE DISCOURSES OF HUMAN RIGHTS, POLITICS, AND SOCIETY <p><em>Modern societies are associated with the constant flow and acceptance of information and communication technologies at home, in the workplace, in the process of education, even in recreational activities. The development of new technologies has not only challenged human rights, but also politics and society in general. Even more importantly, this new technological level has also empowered transnational corporations operating in the digital environment as hosting providers to perform quasi-public functions in the transnational context.</em> <em>New technologies have the potential to make significant positive contributions to the prevention, promotion, and protection of human rights and democratization, decentralization, and digitalization of politics and the advancement of society as a whole. </em></p> Goran Ilik, Angelo Viglianisi Ferraro Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100