Journal of Liberty and International Affairs <p><span class="text14_333"><span class="blue16"><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 regular issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>This journal follows a regular publishing schedule with the occasional addition of a special issue. The journal aims to provide an active international forum for analysis, research, and debate in the fields of political sciences, international relations, and law. Additionally, contributions from economics and related fields are also encouraged. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches. </span></span><strong> The journal is <a href="">indexed</a> in EBSCO, DOAJ, Crossref, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIHPLUS, HeinOnline, CIAO, ProQuest, ANVUR (Class A), WorldCat, Dimensions, etc.</strong></p> <hr /> <p><strong>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | JLIA<br /></strong></p> <p>First publication: April 2015</p> <p>ISSN: 1857-9760 (online) | Open Access | Language: English</p> <p>JLIA uses the plagiarism screening tool: <a href="">PlagScan</a></p> <p>The authors are strongly encouraged to read the <a href="">Review Policy</a> section, the <a href="">Article Guidelines</a>, and the <a href="">Publication Ethics</a> section carefully before preparing an article for <a href="">submission</a>, as well as to check the article for conformance before submitting it for publication.</p> <p><strong>The authors must complete the registration process with the JLIA before submitting. If already registered, authors can directly log in and initiate the submission through the <a href="">online submission system</a>.</strong></p> <p>Contact:</p> <hr /> <p><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs</em> is <a href="">indexed</a> in:</p> <p><sub>EBSCO; Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ); ANVUR (Class A journal); Social Science Open Access Repository (SSOAR); Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL); Columbia International Affairs Online (CIAO); iDiscover (University of Cambridge); SOLO (Search Oxford Libraries Online); Szczepanski List; Dimensions; Baidu Scholar; HeinOnline; Crossref; Google Scholar; ProQuest (Social Science Premium Collection); ProQuest (Political Science Database); DHET Accredited Journals; Scilit; European Reference Index for the Humanities and the Social Sciences (ERIH PLUS); Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE); HARVARD Library (HOLLIS+); SHERPA/RoMEO; SemanticScholar; Mir@bel; WorldCat; JournalTOCs; CORE (COnnecting REpositories); Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals (MIAR); The Open Access Digital Library; Virtual Library Eastern Europe (ViFaOst); Universiteitsbibliotheek Gent; Genamics JournalSeek; J-Gate; JURN Directory; Index of Turkish Education; Electronic Journals Library; Digital Library of University of Maribor; Stanford University Libraries; Hesburgh Libraries, University of Notre Dame; Ghent University Library; ingentaCONNECT; ILSE — IPN Library Search Engine; Universitätsbibliothek Ilmenau; Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN); WILBERT; SFX by Ex Libris | Charles University in Prague; Publikationsserver der RWTH Aachen University; CiteSeerX; AccessON; OUCI; ScienceOpen; DeepDyve; Scite; Scispace; ChronosHub; LIVIVO; OpenAlex; NAVER; Research4Life; ZDB; ROAD; SUDOC; FATCAT; Library of Congress; ACNP – Catalogo Italiano dei Periodici<br /></sub></p> <hr /> Institute for Research and European Studies en-US Journal of Liberty and International Affairs 1857-9760 ONLY RAPE! HUMAN RIGHTS AND GENDER EQUALITY FOR REFUGEE WOMEN: FROM REFUGEE CAMPS TO THE UNITED NATIONS <p><em>In their groundbreaking book titled “Only Rape! Human Rights and Gender Equality for Refugee Women: From Refugee Camps to the United Nations”, the authors Eileen Pittaway and Linda Albina Bartolomei bring to the forefront the pressing and frequently disregarded issue of sexual violence confronted by women seeking refuge. Released in the year 2022, this extensively investigated piece of literature delves deep into the firsthand accounts and experiences of women who find themselves in the often intricate and multi-faceted network of refugee camps, providing an all-encompassing examination of the numerous obstacles they face while simultaneously highlighting their unwavering struggle for both justice and equality.</em></p> Mohammad Ramin Hakimy Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 270 273 10.47305/JLIA24101298h Cover Page and Table of Contents <p><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 regular issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>This journal follows a regular publishing schedule with the occasional addition of a special issue. The journal aims to provide an active international forum for analysis, research, and debate in a broad range of fields. It welcomes submissions primarily from the fields of political sciences, international relations, and law. Additionally, contributions from economics and related fields are also encouraged. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches.</p> Journal of Liberty and International Affairs Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Liberty and International Affairs 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 THE CHALLENGES OF NORMALIZING RELATIONS BETWEEN BELGRADE AND PRISTINA: IMPLICATIONS OF THE "AGREEMENT ON THE PATH TO NORMALIZATION" <p><em>The article analyzes the process of normalizing relations between Belgrade and Pristina after adopting the Agreement on the Path to Normalization. The analytical framework of neorealism was used to explain that the normalization process was accelerated due to the war crisis in Eastern Europe. The international legal aspects of the agreement were scrutinized, based on the method of content analysis and comparative studies, to argue that the agreement is a legally binding treaty between two sides that respect each other’s international legal personality. The authors concluded that the European Union and the United States attempted to create new momentum in the decade-long and rather unsuccessful process by adopting the Agreement and the Annex on implementation. Thus, these documents were put in the context of relations between Belgrade and Pristina and broader European and regional levels of complex relations. In addition, the analysis concluded that the documents serve as new impulses in normalization as a continuous legal formalization of relations between the two sides based on international legal rules. </em></p> Mihajlo Vucic Dragan Djukanovic Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 20 36 10.47305/JLIA24101022v GOOD GOVERNANCE AND RULE OF LAW EFFECT ON GDP GROWTH: LESSONS FOR EMERGING ECONOMIES <p><em>The overall aim of this article is to explore the effect of governance parameters on gross domestic product (GDP) in the 15 countries of the European Union (EU15) as well as the 6 countries of Southeast Europe (SEE6). The research employed the dynamic methodology generalized methods of moments (GMM) to explore the data gathered from the World Bank and the Global Economy database stretching 2000 - 2022, correspondingly 2008 - 2022. Our analyzed result for EU15 confirms that regulatory quality (RQ), government effectiveness (GE), and rule of law (RL) positively influence GDP; instead, control of corruption (CC) negatively influences GDP. The results obtained for SEE6 reveal that GE and CC positively influence GDP, but instead, the RL negatively influences GDP. Additionally, RQ in the SEE6 instance has shown an insignificant influence on GDP. Unfortunately, the study could not cover every country in both panel groups because of data limitations. Regarding the study’s conclusions, increased dedication to applying and undertaking reform measures for the key governance indicators for SEE6 countries would be helpful. These insights may raise the need to create specific mechanisms for the RL and CC. Compared to other research, the novelty and originality of the present research lies in the fact that it used panel data via the dynamic GMM approach to explore the role of improving government quality metrics in GDP. </em></p> Esat Durguti Avni Alidemaj Anatolijs Krivins Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 37 60 10.47305/JLIA24101041d EXAMINING THE GAP BETWEEN EU FUNDAMENTAL VALUES IN THEORY AND PRACTICE: A CASE STUDY OF MACEDONIA’S JOURNEY TOWARD EU ACCESSION <p><em>The objective of this paper is to assess the gap between the EU’s commitment to its values and the fairness of its accession process, in particular the Macedonian journey to the EU, which is not only contradictory to the EU’s core values but also contradictory to the principle of equal rights and self-determination. For this purpose, the methodology consists of conducting qualitative analysis based on two bilateral agreements and analyzing the evolution of EU requirements and their implications. The paper argues that rather than enforcing the Copenhagen criteria and making the country’s pre-accession progress contingent on the strengthening of the rule of law, the EU has expended enormous effort in what was essentially a political bilateral dispute between states, with the resolution of the dispute to be replaced as a pre-accession criterion. The paper concludes that the EU should return to its fundamental values and prioritize merit-based criteria in the enlargement process, not a politically based decision. </em></p> Larisa Vasileska Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 61 80 10.47305/JLIA24101063v EMPOWERING COMMUNITIES IN KOSOVO: THE VITAL ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN ADVANCING EDUCATION AND CURBING DEVIANT BEHAVIOR <p><em>Local communities play an essential role in developing and organizing their lives for joint betterment. Local self-government, through local democratic mechanisms, involves the community as part of the public policies, showing the sign of the development of the local democracy. This research aims to analyze the communication and collaboration between the local government and local communities in Kosovo, focusing on their role in the development of education and the reduction of deviant behavior, intending to create a better social environment for the community. The research methodology employed for this paper is as follows: library research, qualitative research, and the analysis of the laws in power related to the topic. There will be field research working with two focus groups belonging to the municipality of Prishtina, considering their ethnic component. General results show that communities are still in the development and organization phase, whereas their participation in the process of public policies is still under the average level. Social audits can be mechanisms for development, organizing the community, and involvement in local government policies. </em></p> Islam Hasani Ferdi Kamberi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 81 96 10.47305/JLIA24101089h INTERNATIONAL REGISTER OF DAMAGE: THE GUARANTEE OF RECOVERING JUSTICE IN UKRAINE <p><em>This study addresses the urgent need to establish a comprehensive compensation mechanism for damages incurred by Ukraine due to Russian aggression. The research analyzes the legal, procedural, and practical aspects of the Enlarged Partial Agreement on the Register of Damage instituted by the Council of Europe. Methodologically, the study employs existing literature, legal documentation, and various scientific methods to understand the dynamics of compensation mechanisms. The study identifies unresolved issues through a comprehensive literature review and proposes solutions. The study underscores the pivotal role of the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine in meticulously documenting damages and proposes specific categories of compensation claims. Overall, the research highlights the significance of international cooperation and legal frameworks in restoring justice and providing accountability for those affected by the conflict. </em></p> Olena Agapova Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 97 110 10.47305/JLIA24101106a FASHIONABLE POLITICS: HOW ITALIAN LEADERS TRANSFORM INTO SUCCESSFUL BRANDS IN CONTEMPORARY COMMUNICATION <p><em>Political communication is inherently intertwined with social dynamics and cannot be considered a separate field of study. Symbolic elements, slogans, and the leadership of political figures have permeated human history, influencing and often determining political action. This study has analyzed the phenomenon of personalization as compelling evidence in the field of contemporary political communication. The analysis is based on a study of Italian cases, aiming to provide an in-depth insight into the strategies adopted by political parties to personalize their leaders’ image and engage voters. In particular, the focus has primarily been on party symbols incorporating the leader’s name. The research was conducted to identify party personalization mechanisms and their impact on public opinion. The result highlighted the role of political communication in asserting the individual as a brand at the expense of the party organization, with significant implications for democracy and political participation. </em></p> Daniele Battista Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 111 126 10.47305/JLIA24101121b SCIENCE DIPLOMACY IN THE NEGOTIATION OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONTRACTS: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT <p><em>This study investigates the significance of science diplomacy at the convergence of politics, diplomacy, and science, emphasizing its heightened relevance in contemporary geopolitics and economic development. The aim was to elucidate the role of science diplomacy in optimizing negotiation outcomes concerning international business contracts by examining students’ perceptions of its impacts in such contexts. A theoretical analysis was initially conducted to identify the main themes shaping our questionnaire by employing a comprehensive research strategy that combines quantitative and qualitative methods. Data collection was carried out through a survey using a five-point Likert scale. The study revealed the students’ positive evaluation of science diplomacy, indicating their recognition and appreciation of its utilization in enhancing negotiation outcomes over international business contracts. While political leadership remains crucial in economic negotiations, our findings underscore the significant impact of science diplomacy in promoting international economic relations and facilitating domestic companies’ access to global markets. This research significantly contributes to our understanding of the multifaceted role of science diplomacy in global knowledge dissemination and problem-solving. It elucidates the importance of science diplomacy in international relations and academia, emphasizing its constructive impact on addressing complex challenges. </em></p> Suada Dzogovic Anita Cucovic Armand Krasniqi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 127 148 10.47305/JLIA24101136dj TAIWAN’S INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STANDING: NAVIGATING THE FRAGILE STATUS QUO <p><em>This study aimed to discuss the legal limbo of Taiwan, whose political situation lies in a grey area of international law. Its legal status is ambiguous: while meeting the characteristics of a State, it is not recognized by other States so long as China claims it as a Chinese territory. The methodology developed in this study adopted the descriptive analytical approach to the different principles of international law, in addition to quantitative methods, which involved gathering data on cases, courts, and resolutions of international organizations, followed by thorough analysis. This research provided an in-depth investigation to critically assess Taiwan’s fragile status quo, threatened by a potential Chinese military intervention. The study found that the idea that Taiwan is deprived of legal status points out the shortcomings of international law. This study concluded that to overcome this tricky situation, Taiwan should take bold moves, such as making constitutional reforms to facilitate its independence. </em></p> Mahir Al Banna Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 149 172 10.47305/JLIA24101157ab THE STRATEGIC ADJUSTMENTS OF CHINA, INDIA, AND THE US IN THE INDO-PACIFIC GEOPOLITICAL CONTEXT <p><em>Since the beginning of the XXI century, the Indo-Pacific region has become the “focus” of strategic competition between the world’s great powers. This area included many “choke points” on sea routes that are strategically important for the development of international trade, playing an important role in transporting oil, gas, and goods around the world from the Middle East to Australia and East Asia. The article analyzed the geostrategic position of the Indo-Pacific region and the strategic adjustments in foreign affairs of some major powers in this region, specifically the US, China, and India. To achieve this goal, the authors used research methods in international relations to analyze the main issues of the study. In addition to reviewing previous scholarly research and reviews, the authors used a comparative approach to assess the interactions between theory and data. The authors believed that these data are important for accurately assessing the strategic importance of the Indo-Pacific region, and this area was an important trigger for the US, China, and India to make adjustments to its foreign policy. If the US proposed a strategy called “Free and Open Indo-Pacific” (FOIP), India’s strategy was called the Indo-Pacific Initiative. China’s Indo-Pacific strategy was clearly expressed through the “String of Pearls” strategy and the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI). As a result, in the geopolitical context of the Indo-Pacific region, the competition between major powers (the US, China, India...) is also becoming fiercer and more complex. It has a significant impact on other countries in the region. </em></p> Binh Nguyen Hiep Tran Co Nguyen Vuong Nguyen Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 173 191 10.47305/JLIA24101171n BETWEEN TRADITION AND TRANSFORMATION: THE IMPACT OF ILLIBERAL POPULISM ON GEORGIA’S DEMOCRATIC ASPIRATIONS <p><em>The article examines the role of Georgian far-right illiberal populist groups in Georgian politics and their influence on Georgia’s foreign policy and the ongoing democratization process, emphasizing Euroscepticism, liberal institutional development, and the pro-Russian narrative. Using qualitative research methodology, we analyzed the programs, manifestos, and public speeches of well-known groups active in Georgian politics, such as People's Power, Georgian March, Georgian Idea, Unity, Essence, Hope (ERI), and Alliance of Patriots of Georgia. Analysis of the mentioned material, as well as various scientific studies, shows that the discourse of these groups is dominated by xenophobic, nationalist, populist, and racist rhetoric, which represents a significant challenge to Georgia’s European integration path and in the direction of democratization of its governance system. In the long term, we concluded that the existence and development of these illiberal populist actors threaten Georgia’s aspirations for European integration and democratic development. This study contributes to a broader discourse about populism and illiberal views in the Georgian reality, focusing on the influence of these ideologies on the formation of the country’s foreign policy and orientation.</em></p> Giorgi Iakobishvili Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 192 211 10.47305/JLIA24101191l ASSESSING SUCCESS THROUGH PARTY LABEL DURABILITY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF ALBANIA AND THE HOMELAND UNION OF LITHUANIA <p><em>This study provided a theoretical framework explaining center-right opposition parties’ evolution in former Eastern Europe. It answered why post-communist center-right parties lacked consistent success and either became marginalized, altered their ideologies, or ceased to exist in the long run. By taking the Democratic Party of Albania as one of the exceptions to the rule and comparing it to the Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats, we showed the discrepancy with much of the other center-right parties. We followed a most different systems design, where the dominant center-right party of Albania and the dominant one in Lithuania were compared. Although much different in history, political culture, and institutions, they had similar successful trajectories as dominant center-right parties. We argued that the success of these parties depends upon the durability of party labels as a critical determinant of a party’s success historically, which takes priority over party strategy, mobilization power, social base, and the behavior of the center-right party toward political institutions. Overall, we emphasized party labels as cues of party identification and success.</em></p> Ilir Kalemaj Sokol Lleshi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 212 232 10.47305/JLIA24101216k RECONSIDERING THE RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN CONFLICT AND SECURITY CONCERNS IN AFRICA <p><em>Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in 2022 triggered a conflict that has transformed international relations through drastic impacts on policymaking, energy politics, and alliances. Such impacts have produced severe multi-dimensional consequences for African countries that have yet to be sufficiently interrogated in the literature. In response to this gap, this paper examined the security implications of the conflict for African countries to offer a comprehensive analysis that considers the intersection of the conflict with contemporary economic, human, social, and political issues confronting Africa. In discourse using a qualitative approach and rooted in a theoretical perspective drawn from the Copenhagen School, the paper underlined the security implications as evident in the areas of food security and governance, buttressing that the proxy conflicts and power struggles associated with this war have exacerbated existing challenges related to food availability and interfered with the consolidation of democracy in Africa. The paper concluded that the war’s multi-dimensional impact potentially compounds political instability vectors. It generates dynamics capable of eroding social cohesion and fomenting social unrest in Africa, meriting its designation as an issue of great concern to African policymakers.</em></p> Ndifon Neji Immaculata Obaji-Akpet Michael Otu Joseph Ebegbulem Samuel Edet Ayuk Awunghe Nwosu Stanley Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 233 251 10.47305/JLIA24101246n LEGALITY OF THE USE OF CLUSTER BOMBS IN INTERNATIONAL LAW: A SHORT OVERVIEW <p><em>The war in Ukraine brought the collective security system towards a dead-end street. After raising the question of nuclear threat, another long-time forgotten question arises again, waking up the ghosts that slept for more than a half-century- the use of cluster bombs. Although an international convention prohibits this type of weapon, neither Ukraine, Russia, nor the United States are part of it, which leads back to the agony of fragmentation of international law versus the erga omnes concept of universally applicable norms and customary rules. Since the war is official and intensive, the law of armed conflict applies no matter which of the states involved denies it or names it differently. The use of cluster munitions from both sides is highly contested in international law—the paper aimed to provide an overview of the applicable legal framework through analytical and comparative methods. Although there is a general notion that cluster munition is banned under international law, the paper’s results show this is not the ultimate case. Contextualisation relies on the four basic principles of humanitarian law. </em></p> Vesna Poposka Abdulmecit Nuredin Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1 252 269 10.47305/JLIA24101270p Reviewers for Volume 10, Number 1, 2024 <p><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>expresses profound gratitude to our esteemed reviewers, whose dedicated efforts and insightful critiques have significantly enhanced the quality and rigor of the manuscripts featured in our publication. While the editorial team holds ultimate decision-making authority, we greatly value the invaluable contributions of our reviewers, who bring forth substantial technical expertise, deep scientific comprehension, thoughtful consideration of societal implications, and enthusiastic engagement. We wholeheartedly acknowledge their commitment, expertise, and unwavering support.</p> Journal of Liberty and International Affairs Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10 1