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Paiman Ahmad
Bosede Ngozi Adeleye
Elena Tilovska-Kechedji


The role of the EU in sustainable development has been generally seen as influential so far. The EU has proven its commitment to promoting sustainability abroad, and the EU has embarked on a transition to a low-carbon society at home.  The Middle East lags behind all regions regarding sustainability due to ravaging economic, security, and social challenges, particularly in Iraq and Syria. As the economic nature of the petro-states, the petroleum price influences the GDP and economic growth not only for Iraq and Syria but the majority of resource-based economies. This creates fragile economies that are less resistant to international financial crises. Moreover, petro-states have few economic characteristics, including; high capital intensity, centralization and control of revenues, and low demand for labor. At the same time, oil has special effects on domestic conditions like authoritarianism and the temptation for civil war. This study focuses on the role of the EU in sustainability policy towards Iraq and Syria. This study highlights how the European Green Deal (EGD) influences the path to sustainability in the Middle East, specifically in Iraq and Syria. In line with this, the analytical framework discusses the logic of social actions (consequentialism and appropriateness), which are at play in EU-Middle East relations. Thus, it contributes to the role of the EU as a leading actor in global sustainability governance, focusing on a region that has been largely neglected. 


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How to Cite
Ahmad, P. ., Adeleye, B. N. ., & Tilovska-Kechedji, E. . (2023). THE EU AS A GLOBAL ACTOR IN SUSTAINABILITY POLICY: ANALYZING THE EU’S LIMITED BUT POTENTIAL INFLUENCE IN IRAQ AND SYRIA. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs, 9(1), 289-302.
Author Biographies

Paiman Ahmad, University of Raparin, Ranya, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Dr. Paiman Ahmad is an academician from Iraqi-Kurdistan Region. She is an assistant professor at the Law and Administration departments, University of Raparin, Rania-Iraq. At the same time a visiting lecturer at the International Relations and Diplomacy Department, Faculty of Administrative Sciences and Economics, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq with research interest in, Energy Economics Sustainable Development in developing economies, Climate Change, Migration, and Gender in conflict-affected countries and Public Sector in developing world. She holds a PhD in Public Administration from the National University of Public Service-Budapest-Hungary-2018. Her research works have been published in reputable journals.

Bosede Ngozi Adeleye, Department of Accountancy, Finance and Economics, University of Lincoln, UK

Bosede Ngozi Adeleye (PhD) is an alumnus of Ogun State University, Nigeria and University of Sussex, UK. She has over 60 publications on SDG-themed studies. She is quantitative inclined with strong proficiency in Stata and EViews analytical software. She is a content creator and Founder of Crunch Econometrix ( a digital platform designed to teach hands-on applied econometrics to beginners, intermediate, and advanced level users. Her YouTube Channel ( has 153 videos, 28,500+ subscribers and over 3.5 million views. She recently launched Practical Econometrics for Researchers, Beginners, and Advanced-Level Users (P.E.R.B.A) a massive open online course (MOOC) on Teachable ( She earned The British Academy endorsement for Exceptional Talent. She is a member of Royal Economic Society, Africa Finance and Economic Association, and African Economic Research Consortium. She is a reviewer to several international journals

Elena Tilovska-Kechedji, Law faculty, University St. Kliment Ohridski in Bitola, North Macedonia

Elena Tilovska-Kechedji PhD is an Associate professor in political science and diplomacy. Her interests and specialization are in the following areas: International Relations and Diplomacy, Foreign policy, Foreign Policy of the EU, Integration in the European Union (with specialization in the Balkans), EU Law and politics, Refugees, Migration and Human rights, International Law, Political policies and theories, Artificial Intelligence and cyber security in the international relations domain. She was a Vice Dean for International Cooperation and Science, and was a Senator at the University Senate. She was granted ERASMUS+ fellowship grant for teaching mobility at the West University of Timisoara, Romania Faculty of Law 2017, was a CEEPUS Coordinator and is a member of International Scientific boards and journals. She is the Faculty coordinator of an ERASMUS+ Jean Monnet project: ANETREC- “Academic network supporting EU policies towards Western Balkans with emphasis on regional cooperation based on reconciliation”, as well as the faculty coordinator of the project: “Renforcement et perspectives de la coopération scientifique dans les Balkans Occidentaux” financed by theSolidarity fund for innovation, civil organizations, francophone and human resources by the Ministry of European and Foreign affairs, France.She holds a post doctoral degree from the “Mediterranea International Centre for Human Rights Research (MICHR)”, at the “Mediterranea” University, Department of Law, Economics and Humanities, Università, Cittadella Universitaria, Reggio Calabria (Italy).