Main Article Content

Mahmoud Khalifa


The issue of illegal immigration from North Africa to Europe is one of the most prominent phenomena that have preoccupied analysts, researchers, and decision-makers, considering that it affects the security of countries and societies alike in North Africa, especially after the wave of protests in 2011. The proposed study focuses on two main questions: What are the repercussions of illegal immigration on the European Union? What are the most important European Union policies to address illegal immigration from North Africa? The methodology of the study employs the qualitative method since it helps provide a substantial and rich description of this complex phenomenon, tracking unique or unexpected events by analyzing the following policies: the Barcelona Process, the Schengen Agreement, the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, the 5+5 Dialogue, the European Neighbourhood Policy, and the Union for the Mediterranean. This article presents an analytical study of European policies to confront illegal immigration from North African countries. Finally, it is concluded the need to adopt a preventive strategy to confront illegal immigration in the Mediterranean region by addressing its causes, especially in the southern Mediterranean countries, which are considered source countries, for improving economic and social conditions.  


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How to Cite
Khalifa, M. . (2022). THE ROLE OF EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES TO COUNTER ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION IN NORTH AFRICA. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs, 8(3), 429-444.
Author Biography

Mahmoud Khalifa, Applied Science University - Bahrain, Suez Canal University, Egypt; School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Lincoln, UK

Mahmoud Khalifa studied for his Bachelor’s and Master’s degree in Political Science at the Faculty of Commerce, Suez Canal University, Egypt. He joined the University of Lincoln (UK) in 2011 as a Visiting Fellow. Mahmoud’s research interests lie in Politics, particularly public policy issues in the Middle East. In 2013 he was awarded his Ph.D. degree by Suez Canal University, under the supervision of the University of Lincoln and Professor Hugh Bochel, and became Assistant Professor at Suez Canal University. In 2018 Mahmoud became an Associate Professor of Political Science. Mahmoud is a member of the Political Studies Association (PSA) in the UK and the Social Policy Association (SPA) in the UK. He has supervised many students in Master's and PhD of Political Science from (Egypt, Bahrain, Libya, Yemen, and Kuwait). as well as in 2018, Mahmoud got an FHEA (Fellow of the Higher Education Academy UK), and in 2022, an SFHEA (Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy UK)