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Timor Shah Bushar


Afghanistan is considered the entry point for interventions and an important basis for the strategic objectives of sovereign actors. Due to the lack of national sovereignty, the inefficient political system and its fragile legal system regarding ethnic-tribal crises have created strategic depths for global and regional actors, which they can pursue and implement their objectives. While Afghanistan is a focal point in expanding political, military, and economic exchanges and transactions in its peripheral areas, it has suffered from deep ethnic divisions to the same extent. This major weakness is the basis for interventions by regional actors. This article does not deal with Afghanistan's internal weaknesses and problems but focuses on the strategic goals of sovereign actors in Afghanistan. War on terror, invasion, and creation of military bases in Afghanistan by the US and NATO to control and monitor China, Russia, Iran, and Central Asian countries, have been pursued during the past 20 years. It shows the importance of Afghanistan’s geo-strategic position in western policies, especially for the United States of America.     


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How to Cite
Bushar, T. S. . (2022). SOVEREIGN ACTORS IN AFGHANISTAN: THE STRATEGIC CALCULUS 2001-2021. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs, 8(3), 320-337.
Author Biography

Timor Shah Bushar, School of International and Area Studies (SIAS), Goa University, India

With over five years of research experience and academic activities, Timor Shah Bushar is a Ph.D. scholar at the School of International and Area Studies, Goa University, India. He is specialized in comparative international politics and Area studies research focusing on Afghanistan and Geopolitical studies. In October 2019, he was accepted by the School of International and Area Studies at Goa University as a Ph.D. Candidate. His Ph.D. dissertation focuses on "Sovereign Actors in Afghanistan: Islamic Extremism and State Failure".Furthermore, he has participated in academic discussions on topics of democracy, security, state-building, peace-building, and political Islam, on various platforms.