Main Article Content

Hamid Bouyahi


Most of the analysis of the Arab spring revolved around the immediate causes of the events and the role of social media in spreading the protests, in countries that succeeded in toppling their regimes. For this reason, this study adopts a different approach to tackle the long-term development of the Political opportunity structures that set the grounds for the emergence of these movements. To avoid the bias of focusing only on movements that succeeded, the paper compares the conditions of the emergence of the Egyptian movement that toppled the Mubarak regime in eighteen days, to the Moroccan movement that faded after a year of weekly protests. Instead of discussing the immediate context in which the movements appeared, or the course of events that the movements followed, the paper adopts a historical approach to review the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial historical, economic and political developments that created different structures of opportunity and threat in each of the two countries.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Bouyahi, H. . (2021). OPENNESS AND CLOSEDNESS OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEMS THAT CAUSED THE ARAB SPRING. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs, 2(2), 29-45. Retrieved from
Author Biography

Hamid Bouyahi, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco

Hamid BOUYAHI is PhD Student at Ibn Tofail University in Kenitra, Morocco. He obtained his master’s degree in “Humanities and Area studies: colonial and postcolonial discourse” from Mohammed the First University in Oujda, Morocco, in 2011. As part of his doctoral studies where he has been studying the Role of Social Media in Instigating the Arab Spring, he has finished four semesters of training as an assistant professor of higher education at Ibn Tofail University, and a year of professional experience as a business communication instructor at the National School of Architecture in Rabat, Morocco. Between 2012 and 2015, Hamid Bouyahi has volunteered with the National Association of Human Rights, as a fieldwork interpreter, at its local branch in Jerada, Morocco; where, he facilitated communication with the English-speaking sub-Saharan migrants. His main interests are social media studies, social movement theory, political sciences, and international relations.