Main Article Content

Stephen Adi Odey
Samuel Akpan Bassey


After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine's foreign policy evolved in the geopolitical sphere of Central and Eastern Europe. As a result, the new Ukrainian interests were built on a sense of national identity. They looked to Russia and Europe to find a sense of national identity. However, Ukraine's Eurasian and Central-European ancestry caused a distinct rift in society about national identity, which influenced the formulation of foreign policy. Those trying to co-exist with Russia find it difficult to develop a Ukrainian identity completely different from Russia, justifying the togetherness through the Pereyaslav agreement. On the contrary, the nationalist-minded Ukrainians, those who want to cultivate an identity distinct from the Russians and, more specifically, look for a Central-European identity, try to influence the course of the foreign policy formation of Ukraine by citing their historicity of Europeanness with the medieval princedom of Kiev and viewing the Pereyaslav memory as disastrous for Ukraine’s independent existence. Thus, national identity is one of the main causes of the Ukrainian-Russian conflict. This study aims to uncover significant events in Ukrainian foreign policy toward Russia that led to modern-day conflict.           


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Adi Odey, Stephen, and Samuel Akpan Bassey. 2022. “UKRAINIAN FOREIGN POLICY TOWARD RUSSIA BETWEEN 1991 AND 2004: THE START OF THE CONFLICT ”. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs 8 (2):346-61. .
Thematic section: Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine
Author Biographies

Stephen Adi Odey, Department of Sociology University of Calabar, Cross River, Nigeria

Dr. (Barr.) Stephen Adi Odey is a seasoned and erudite scholar, an astute administrator, politician, legal luminary, community leader, philanthropist, teacher, and academician. He served with the Cross River State Ministry of Education as a teacher between 1989 and 1998. He rose to the position of acting principal in 1999. Dr. Steve resigned from the Cross River State Ministry of Education and joined the defunct Joint Maritime Labour Industrial Council in 2001 as Senior Dock Labour Officer. In 2009, he joined the services of the University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria as Lecturer II in the Department of Sociology, and was promoted to Lecturer I in 2015, and in 2019, he was also promoted to Senior Lecturer. Outside the University of Calabar, Calabar, where he has focused his time and attention till today, he has also served as an Adjunct Lecturer with the National Open University of Nigeria between 2005 and 2009. He holds a Teachersâ€TM Grade II Certificate that he obtained from St. Thomas's College, Ogoja, Nigeria in 1988, and a National Certificate in Education that he obtained from the National Teachers' Institute, Kaduna. Dr. Barr. Steve Odey was awarded a B.Ed. degree in Elementary Education in 1998 by the University of Calabar, Nigeria. The University of Calabar also awarded him M.Sc. and Ph.D degrees in Industrial Sociology in 2004 and 2010, respectively. Finally, he ventured into the legal profession and was awarded LL.B and B.L degrees by the University of Calabar and the Nigerian Law School, Bwarri-Abuja, Nigeria in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Dr. Odey was appointed Personal Assistant (2011-2014) and later Special Assistant (2014-2015) to Senator (Prof.) Benedict Ayade, Senator Representing Cross River State's Northern Senatorial District in the National Assembly.In 2015, Dr Steve Odey was appointed Executive Chairman of the Cross River State Universal Basic Education Board, and later in 2017, he was appointed to double as the Acting Managing Director of Cross River State Water Board Limited. In all these offices, Dr. Barr. Steve Odey has brought his wealth of experience in academic, legal, and administration to bear. Dr. Steve Odey served as a dedicated teacher and mentor while in the university system, and he made a significant contribution to the graduation of university students.His main area of specialisation is industrial sociology. Even while in politics, he was a regular participant in many local and foreign academic conferences, symposia, workshops and seminars, where he presented papers. Dr. Odey has published over thirty scholarly papers, contributed to book chapters, and written many technical reports. He is a beneficiary of the University of Calabar-based 2015 TETFund Intervention grant and the National Intervention Grant. He has collaborators within and outside the University of Calabar environment. He is a member of the Nigerian Bar Association, an Associate Member of the Chartered Institute of Personnel Management and Administration, an Associate Member of the Chartered Institute of Mediators and Conciliators, and a Fellow of the Centre for African American Research Studies. He currently serves as an editor for the International Journal of Industrial Relations and the African Journal of Arbitration and Conflict Resolution, both of which are published annually by the Centre for African American Research Studies (CAARS).

Samuel Akpan Bassey, Department of Philosophy, University of Calabar, Cross River, Nigeria

Samuel Akpan Bassey is a Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Ethics. He is a researcher at the University of Calabar, Nigeria. His current research interests include animal ethics, sex ethics, and academic ethics. In the year 2018, he helped launch Gnosi: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Human Theory and Praxis, an open-source, online, peer-reviewed publishing platform for both social science and humanities scholars. Bassey serves as the managing director and site administrator for the journal. He is also a member of the editorial board for numerous peer-reviewed journals.