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Bistra Netkova
Ariana Qosaj Mustafa


The general international standards are being discussed in this article, as well as more relevant ones concerned with the problem of sexual exploitation and child abuse. Further, the article discusses a growing understanding of children’s exposure to violence, strengthened commitments to secure their safety and protection, and significant international implementation efforts to mobilize support for prevention and response and to help change attitudes and behavior which condone violence against children. With the fast development of the internet and online social networks, the article ends with a conclusion in identifying criminal law benchmarks based on the previously identified general international standards.



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How to Cite
Netkova, B. ., & Qosaj Mustafa , A. . (2021). INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STANDARDS IN COMBATING CHILD ONLINE SEXUAL ABUSE AND EXPLOITATION. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs, 6(3), 111-122.
Author Biographies

Bistra Netkova, University of Mother Theresa Skopje, North Macedonia

Prof.Dr. Netkova Bistra is a professor of, International law and Business Ethic at the University of Mother Theresa Skopje. She has obtained her PhD in International Human Rights, and her Master Degree in International Law and International Organizations at University of Groningen, Faculty of Law, The Netherlands. Professor Netkova has been working also as an international consultant for UNICEF, CoE and other international organizations in the area of Child protection, and Women’s human rights.

Ariana Qosaj Mustafa , Riinvest International, Accredited Programmes for London School of Economics, Riinvest College, Kosovo

Dr. Ariana Qosaj-Mustafa is a senior analyst and human rights activist with more than twenty years of experience. Currently she is full time senior lecturer with college Riinvest Internationalaccredited programmes for LSE-University of London degrees. She is currently Chair of Kosovo Women’s Network and has supported the development of the organization actively as a leading umbrella organization for women focused NGO’s in Kosovo. She has published a number of policy analysis and research reports when part of KIPRED think tank as well as for Kosovo Women's Network related to Good Governance, Rule of Law, Human Rights and Gender Equality, specifically focusing on Gender Based Violence research. She also often acts as a trainer and consultant related to human rights and gender equality issues, with a number of organizations such as the EU Office, UNDP, CoE, UN WOMEN, etc.Her education is a Master of Science degree in Gender, Development and Globalisation from London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London-UK and a Bachelor of Law from University of Prishtina. She has been awarded Doctor of History of Law from Law Faculty “Iustinianius Primus” in Skopje, UKiM, North Macedonia. She has conducted research in Washington College of Law, Washington D.C from April to May 2010. She has recently attended a professional certificate research semester in Dartmouth College, Hanover-USA. She was awarded the certificate with high honors in Women and Gender Studies.

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