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Edita Naskovska
Nikola Gjorshoski


This paper focuses on the individual holders of public office or duty and the numerous past and present criminal cases related to corruption and abuse of power. By analyzing the penal policies of the courts in several regions (North Macedonia, Romania, Croatia, Montenegro, and Albania), as well as the imposed sanctions and court verdicts, this paper presented the fundamental characteristics of the criminal justice system’s functioning in preventing such forms of crime. Through a comparative analysis of experiences, empirical research (case study), and an overview of the situation in multiple Balkan countries, the paper, as a key result, offered a comprehensive examination of the specific offenses outlined in the legislations of the countries under investigation and presented legal solutions derived from various Balkan nations. Finally, the paper concludes that corruption is a general problem in all the investigated countries and proposes possible solutions.


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How to Cite
Naskovska, Edita, and Nikola Gjorshoski. 2023. “COMPARATIVE PRACTICES OF THE BALKAN COUNTRIES IN THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION”. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs 9 (2):561-79.
Author Biographies

Edita Naskovska, Administrative Court of the Republic of North Macedonia

Edita Naskovska graduated in 1995 at the Faculty of Law Skopje at the University "St. Cyril and Methodius" Skopje. She started her judicial experience in the Basic Court Skopje 1 Skopje. In 1996, she attended training at the American Law School of human rights in war situations. In 1997 she passed the Bar Exam at the Ministry of Justice.She received her Master's degree in 2011 with the paper "Criminal law aspects of Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights" and obtained a scientific degree of Master of Laws in the field of Criminal Law. In 2019 she defended her doctoral dissertation with the paper "Criminal aspects of abuse of power " at the Faculty of Law Skopje "Justinian I" at the University "St. Cyril and Methodius" Skopje. She was elected a judge of the Administrative Court in 2010. In the practical work and in choosing the topics for observation of scientific papers, she regularly follows the practice of the European Courts .In 2016, she was elected as a candidate for a judge at the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. At the same time she is positioned as a lecturerof the practice at The Faculty of Security, Skopjeand at the Academy for Judges and Prosecutors Skopje.Since 2010 she is an active member of the Association of Judges of RN Macedonia and participates in projects for Judicial Transparency, media reporting and evaluation of judges, project for Improving the mechanisms judicial ethics-sharing of best practices .In 2018 she was elected a member of the Judicial Media Council of the Association of Judges and member of the Association of Criminal Law and Criminology of Macedonia.

Nikola Gjorshoski, Integrated Business Faculty - Skopje, North Macedonia

Nikola Gjorshoski is assistant professor at Integrated Business Faculty Skopje. In 2020 obtained a PhD degree in Political Sciences module Political System, defending his doctoral dissertation entitled "The Axiological and Practical Dimension of Political Islam and Its (In) Compatibility with Democracy." His spheres of research are:contemporary political systems and party systems, political ideologies, models of democracy, as well as political aspects of religions and confessional political issues. He is currently member of Team of Education of the State Electoral Commission of the Republic of North Macedonia. He has participated in many seminars, trainings and workshopsconnected to youth activity and the NGO sector, out of which most important being: “United youth workers in common goal” (Copenhagen, 2005), “The legislative theatre in action” (Belgrade, 2013), “Political academy: Political organization and communication” (Skopje, 2013), “Project X meeting” (Kloogaranna, 2013), “Together for Social Rights – Youth workers and local authorities” (Strasbourg, 2013), “Bridge between politic and civil society” (Struga, 2014), “Structuring the dialogue between the Government and CSOs” (Struga, 2014). He has been a member of European Network on Access to Social Rights for Young People from 2013, as well asLocal Youth Council on Municipality of Ohrid from 2014. In the period 2013 - 2016 he worked at the Faculty of Law, University “St. Clement of Ohrid” - Bitola, like a young assistant and researcher in the following subjects: Political System, Constitutional Law, Introduction in Political Sciences, Local Self-Government. Since 2015 he is co-founder and member of Executive Committee of Institute for Research and Development of Southeast Europe (IRDSE) – Ohrid. He is the author of several scientific articles and papers: “Definition and Basic Values of Modern Conservatism” in Horizonti Vol. 15, Year X, Bitola, 2014; “Doctrinal and Ideological Paradigm of the Conservatism in Western European Countries” In Journal of Liberty and International AffairsVol. 1. No. 1 2014, “The Ideological Specifics of the Variants of Contemporary Conservatism” In Journal of Liberty and International AffairsVol. 2. No. 1 2016; “Secularist and Islamist Constitutional Conceptions in the Modern Muslim world: The Cases of KemalistTurkey and Khomeini’s Iran” In Journal of Liberty and International Affairs Vol. 3. No. 1 2017, Prishtina, “Political and doctrinal sources and valuable framework of the political Islam in context of political ideologies” in Journal of Liberty and International affairs Vol. 3 No. 3.“The Narrative of Political Islam: Constitutionalism and Human Rights” in: Journal of Liberty and International affairs Vol. 4 No. 1. 2018, “Militant – extremist Faction of Political Islam: Conceptual Renaming, Sharia (Un) Foundation and Features”, in: Security, Political and Legal Challenges of the Modern World. Volume II, 2018., “Basic Components and Ideological Orientation of the Salafi Branch of Political Islam” in: International Dialogue: East – West. Vol 6. No. 2. 2019, The Political and Ideological Coloring of Islamophobia in Western and Southeast Europe” – Bitola , Theoretical and Empirical Framework of Connection between Political Islam and Consociational Democracy” in Research Result. Sociology and Management Vol. 6 No. 3. 2020, Religious Theodemocracy: Sharia Democracy as a Unique Islamic Model" in Research Results: Sociology and Management. No. 3. Vol. 7 2021, The Axiological and Praxeological Connection between Political Islam and Liberal Democracy in Handbook of Research on Ethnic, Racial and Religious Conflicts and Their Impact on State and Society 2022. He also has a significant number of lectures at summer schools, supported by the Council of Europe, CIFE and Hedayah such as: "Crisis, Conflict, Peace and Cooperation in the Balkans" within the Balkan Summer University "Sustainable development and environmental protection", organized by CIFE (International Center for European Training) and Faculty for tourism and hospitality Ohrid, Ohrid; Lectures on topic: "The Ideological Perspective of the fight against violent extremism"; Trainings for strengthening the capacities of teachers, municipal officials and parents for prevention of radicalization that leads to violence. Organized by the Center for Research and Policy Making (CRPM), under the global Strive program, funded and supported by the Hedayah Center - Abu Dhabi and the OSCE Mission to Skopje; Lectures on "Conflicts, Identities, Religion and Cooperation in the Balkans: Contemporary Aspects and Perspectives" within the Balkan Summer University "Sustainable development and environmental protection", organized by CIFE (International Center for European Training) and Faculty for tourism and hospitality Ohrid; Regional dialogue "Western Balkans - Ukraine" organized by PROI supported by the Swedish Cooperation and Development Agency (SIDA). Presentation on the topic: The religious and dimensions of the crisis in Ukraine and the concepts of the European integration processes - Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina).