Maritime Security: The Pillar of India’s IPOI in Southeast Asia and Its Implications for Vietnam

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Cuong Pham


This article analyses the maritime security pillar of India’s Indo-Pacific Outlook Initiative (IPOI) in Southeast Asia and its far-reaching impact on Vietnam. The study utilizes the analytical framework of neorealism, liberalism, and constructivism to examine the objectives and intentions of India’s IPOI and ASEAN’s AOIP in the context of strategic competition in the Indo-Pacific. The author’s findings reveal a significant convergence of strategic interests between IPOI and AOIP, which brings numerous and tremendous benefits to Vietnam, such as fostering the Vietnam-India comprehensive strategic partnership and equipping Vietnam to tackle challenges from the rise of China. The rise of China, strategic competition among major powers, and the increasing significance of the Indo-Pacific have spurred India and ASEAN to develop their visions to adapt to the Indo-Pacific concept. However, the implementation of IPOI in Southeast Asia still faces several limitations, primarily due to the divergent understanding and goals of IPOI, which places a premium on maritime security, and AOIP, which is more focused on naval cooperation. Furthermore, differences in the perceptions of India and ASEAN on maritime security also contribute to these limitations, highlighting the need for further research and development.


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How to Cite
Pham, Cuong. 2024. “Maritime Security: The Pillar of India’s IPOI in Southeast Asia and Its Implications for Vietnam”. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs 10 (2):48-73.
Author Biography

Cuong Pham, Institute for South Asian, West Asian and African Studies, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences, Vietnam

Dr. Pham Cao Cuong is the Deputy Director General of the Institute for South Asian, West Asian, and African Studies (ISAWAAS). Previously, he was the Deputy Director-General of the Vietnam Institute for Indian and Southwest Asian Studies (VIISAS), the Vietnam Institute for Americas Studies (VIAS), and a Research Fellow of the Institute for Southeast Asian Studies under the Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences (VASS). He attained a PhD in Politics and International Relations at the University of New South Wales, Australia. His work focuses on US foreign policy, security Issues in Southeast Asia, India’s foreign policy, and India-ASEAN relations.