Gabriella Gricius
Gabriella Gricius is a Senior Research Associate for the Public International Law and Policy Group in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. She recently received her Masters degree in International Security from the University of Groningen and is currently pursuing doctoral research in the Netherlands. Her interests are focused on the intersection of conflict studies, the rule of law, corruption and security studies in Russia and Eastern Europe. She is also a freelance journalist and has published in Foreign Policy, Bear Market Brief, Global Security Review and Riddle Russia as well as the academic journals The Asian Journal of Peacebuilding and Sicherheit & Frieden.
Visits: 727
Downloads: 32
Creative Commons License
Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | Vol. 5, No. 2 | September 2019
Gabriella Gricius
Many of the world's conflicts today are self-sustaining and ongoing, making the application of transitional justice measures difficult. Particularly in Central and Eastern Europe, namely Georgia and Ukraine, both of which have experienced regime changes in the twenty-first century and implemented lustration and vetting measures - the question of whether or not transitional justice will be successfully utilized is very much still under debate. My research explores the relationship between lustration and vetting policies and corruption in Ukraine and Georgia. Past studies of corruption in these countries have focused the extent of state exploitation of the forms through which corruption is expressed such as political appointments, and protection from prosecution. This research, by contrast, aims to study the relationship that corruption has with the particular transitional justice measure of lustration and vetting.
Ukraine; Georgia; Transitional Justice; Corruption

1.Alatas, Syed Hussein. Corruption: Its Nature, Causes, and Functions. Aldershot, UK: Avebury, 1990.
2."Anti-Corruption Reforms in Ukraine: 4th Round of Monitoring of the Istanbul Anti-Corruption Action Plan." OECD, 2017.
3.Bardhan, P. "Method in the Madness? A Political-Economy Analysis of the Ethnic Conflicts in Less Developed Countries." World Development 25, no. 9 (1997): 1381-98.
4.Bardhan, Pranab. "The Economist's Approach to the Problem of Corruption." World Development 34, no. 2 (2006): 341-48.
5.Basu, Kaushik. "Why, for a Class of Bribes, the Act of Giving a Bribe Should Be Treated as Legal." Government of India Working Paper. Ministry of Finance, 2011.
6.Baum, Christopher, Mustafa Caglayan, Dorothea Schafer, and Oleksandr Talavera. "Political Patronage in Ukrainian Banking." Economics of Transition 16, no. 3 (2008): 537-57.
7.Boed, R. "An Evaluation of the Legality and Efficacy of Lustration as a Tool of Transitional Justice." Columbia Journal of Transitional Law 37, no. 2 (1999): 357-402.
8.Boed, R. "An Evaluation of the Legality and Efficacy of Lustration as a Tool of Transitional Justice." Columbia Journal of Transitional Law 37, no. 2 (1999): 357-402.
9.Burakova, L.A. Pochemu u GruziiPoluchilos?Moscow: United Press, 2011.
10.Bussell, Jennifer. "Typologies of Corruption: A Pragmatic Approach." In Greed, Corruption, and the Modern State: Essays in Political Economy, 21-45. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015.
11.Charap, J, and C Harm. "Institutionalized Corruption and the Kleptocratic State." Washington DC: International Monetary Fund, 1999.
12.Cohen, Stanley. "State Crimes of Previous Regimes: Knowledge, Accountability, and the Policing of the Past." Law and Social Inquiry 20, no. 1 (1995): 7-50.
13."Corruption Perceptions Index (1997-2009)." Transparency International, n.d. http://www.transp arency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi.
14.Czarnota, Adam. "Lustration, Decommunisation and the Rule of Law." The Hague Journal on the Rule of Law 1 (2009): 307-36. https://doi.org/:10.1017/S1876404509003078.
15.De Waal, Thomas. "Fighting a Culture of Corruption in Ukraine." Carnegie Europe, April 18, 2016. https://carnegieeurope.eu/2016/04/18/fighting-culture-of-corruption-in-ukraine-pub-63364.
16.Draft Law No. 4570-1/8 April 2014 (n.d.).
17.Draft Law No. 4570-2/8 April 2014 (n.d.).
18.Draft Law No. 4570-3/8 April 2014 (n.d.).
19.Draft Law No. 4570/26 March 2014 (n.d.).
20."Failed Lustration Process in Georgia." Institute for Development of Freedom of Information (blog), January 25, 2016. https://idfi.ge/en/failed-lustration-in-georgia.
21."Final Opinion on the Law on Government Cleansing (Lustration Law) of Ukraine. Opinion No. 788/2014, CDL-AD (2015), Council of Europe." Venice Commission, 2015.
22.Fithen, C. "The Legacy of Four Vetting Programmes: An Empirical Review." International Center for Transitional Justice, 2009.
23.Friedrich, Carl. "Corruption Concepts in Historical Perspective." In Political Corruption: Concepts and Contexts, 3rd ed., 15-24. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2002.
24.Gallant, Thomas. "Brigandage, Piracy, Capitalism and State Formation: Transnational Crime from a Historical World Systems Perspective." In States and Illegal Practices, 25-62. Oxford and New York: Berg, 1999.
25.Gardiner, John. "Defining Corruption." In Political Corruption: Concepts and Contexts, 3rd ed., 25-40. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2002.
26.Garhton, Per. Georgia - Pawn in the New Political Game. London: Pluto Press, 2010.
27.Goodhand, Jonathan. "Corruption or Consolidating the Peace? The Drugs Economy and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding in Afghanistan." International Peacekeeping 15, no. 3 (2008): 405-23.
28.Grodeland, A, W Miller, and T Koshechkina. A Culture of Corruption? Coping with Government in Post-Communist Europe. Budapest: CEU Press, 2000.
29.Herron, Erik, Nazar Boyko, and Michael Thunberg. "Serving Two Masters: Professionalization Versus Corruption in Ukraine's Election Administration." Governance 30, no. 4 (2017): 601-19.
30.Holmes, L. Rotten States?: Corruption, Post-Communism, and Neoliberalism. Durham: Duke University Press Books, 2006.
31.Horne, Cynthia. "Assessing the Impact of Lustration on Trust in Public Institutions and National Government in Central and Eastern Europe." Comparative Political Studies 45, no. 4 (2012): 412-46.
32."Lustration, Transitional Justice, and Social Trust in Post-Communist Countries. Repairing or Wresting the Ties That Bind?" Europe-Asia Studies 66, no. 2 (2014): 225-54.
33."The Impact of Lustration on Democratization in Postcommunist Countries." International Journal of Transitional Justice 8, no. 3 (2014): 496-521.
34.Huntington, Samuel P. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
35.Jain, Arvind. "Corruption: A Review." Journal of Economic Surveys 15, no. 1 (2001): 71-119.
36.Karstedt, Susanne. "Coming to Terms with the Past in Germany after 1945 and 1989: Public Judgements on Procedures and Justice." Law and Policy 20 (1998): 16.
37.Killingsworth, Matt. "Lustration and Legitimacy." Global Society 24, no. 1 (2010): 71-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600820903432118.
38.Kukhianidze, Alexandre. "Corruption and Organized Crime in Georgia before and after the Rose Revolution." Central Asian Survey 28, no. 2 (2009): 215-34.
39.Law of Ukraine No.16920-VII "On Government Cleansing" (2014).
40.Lough, John, and Vladimir Dubrovskiy. "Are Ukraine's Anti-Corruption Reforms Working?" Research Paper. Russia and Eurasia Programme. Chatham House, November 2018.
41.Nuzov, Ilya. "Transitional Justice in Ukraine: National Reconciliation or Reconsolidation of Post-Communist Trauma?" JusticeInfo.Net (blog), October 17, 2016. https://www.justiceinfo.net/en/component/k2/29577.html?Itemid=102.
42.O'Donnell, Guillermo, and Philippe Schmitter. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
43.Olken, Benjamin. "Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia." Journal of Political Economy 115, no. 2 (2007): 200-249.
44.Panfilov, Oleg, Irina Lagunina, and S Seninsky, Radio Svoboda, October 17, 2008. https://www.svoboda.org/a/469290.html.
45.Philip, Mark. "Conceptualizing Political Corruption." In Political Corruption: Concepts and Contexts, 3rd ed., 41-58. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2002.
46.Piasecka, A. "Summary of Legislative Work on Lustration Act No. 4359 'On Purification of Government.'" The Open Dialog Foundation, December 19, 2014. http://en.odfoundation.eu/a/5537-summary-of-legislative-work-on-lustration-act-no-4359-on-purification-of-government.
47.Piasecka, A, and O Drik. "Current Challenges of Lustration in Ukraine." Policy Paper. The Open Dialog Foundation and Civic Lustration Committee, 2015. http://en.odfoundation.eu/a/6507-current-challenges-of-lustration-in-ukraine.
48.Rachkevych, Mark. "Under Yanukovych, Ukraine Slides Deeper in Ranks of Corrupt Nations." Kyiv Post, December 1, 2011. https://www.kyivpost.com/article/content/ukraine-politics/under-yanukovych-ukraine-slides-deeper-in-ranks-of-118032.html.
49.Rose-Ackerman, Susan. "The Economics of Corruption." Journal of Public Economics 4, no. 2 (1975): 187-203.
50.Rozic, Peter, and Yuliy Nisnevich. "Lustration Matters: A Radical Approach to the Problem of Corruption." Studies in Comparative International Development 51, no. 3 (2016): 257-85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12116-015-9179-1.
51.Shveda, Yuriy, and Joung Ho Park. "Ukraine's Revolution of Dignity: The Dynamics of Euromaidan." Journal of Eurasian Studies 6 (2016).
52.Siegel, R. "Georgia's National Police Corruption Project (Interview with Mikhail Saakashvili)." National Public Radio, September 15, 2005. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4849472.
53.Slade, Gavin. "Crime and Excessive Punishment: The Prevalence and Causes of Human Rights Abuse in Georgia's Prisons." Open Society Georgia Foundation, 2014.
54.Snyder, Jack, and Leslie Vinjamuri. "Trials and Errors: Principle and Pragmatism in Strategies of International Justice." International Security 28, no. 3 (April 2003): 5-44.
55.Snyder, Richard. "Does Lootable Wealth Breed Disorder." Comparative Political Studies 39, no. 8 (2006): 943-68.
56.Stan, L. Transitional Justice in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Reckoning with the Communist Past. New York: Routledge, 2009.
57.Stan, Lavinia. Transitional Justice in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Reckoning with the Communist Past. New York: Routledge, 2009.
58."Witch-Hunt or Moral Rebirth? Romanian Parliamentary Debates on Lustration." East European Politics and Societies 26, no. 2 (May 2012): 274-95.
59.Szeftel, M. "Between Governance and Underdevelopment: Accumulation and Africa's Catastrophic Corruption." Review of African Political Economy 84 (2000): 287-306.
60.Thoms, Oskar N.T., James Ron, and Roland Paris. "State-Level Effects of Transitional Justice: What Do We Know?" International Journal of Transitional Justice 4, no. 3 (2010).
61."Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer: Ukraine Has Become More Corrupt over the Last Two Years." The Ukrainian Week (blog), July 9, 2013. https://ukrainianweek.com/News/84111.
62."Ukraine Crisis: One Million Civil Servants to Be Screened." BBC, September 17, 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-29239447.
63.Varney, Howard. "Assessing the Prospects for Transitional Justice in Georgia." International Center for Transitional Justice, February 2017.
64.Volintiru, Clara. "The Exploitative Function of Party Patronage: Does It Serve the Party's Interest?" East European Politics 31, no. 1 (2015): 39-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/21599165.2014.999855.
65."You Don't Exist: Arbitrary Detentions, Enforced Disappearances, and Torture in Eastern Ukraine." London: Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, 2016.
66.Zabyelina, Yuliya. "Lustration Beyond Decommunization: Responding to the Crimes of the Powerful in Post-Euromaidan Ukraine." Journal of the International State Crime Initiative 6, no. 1 (2017): 55-79
Circle of Friends
Any views expressed in this publication are the views of the authors and are not necessarily the views of the editors or publisher.
Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
is published by the Institute for Research and European Studies - Bitola
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License