Mkrtich Karapetyan
Mkrtich Karapetyan is born in Yerevan, Armenia, received Bachelor's and Master's degrees in Oriental Studies from Yerevan State University, studied Arabic at Arabic Teaching Institute For Non - Arabic Speakers in Damascus, as well as at Higher Language Institute of Damascus University, later on entered Master's studies in Modern and Contemporary History at Tishreen University in Latakia, Syria, but did not complete the studies, since I was forced to leave Syria because of the war. In 2014 I was accepted to do PhD in the Faculty of Political Science at University of Bucharest. Middle Eastern politics and particularly Turkish-Syrian relations are my main topics of interest.
Visits: 2921
Downloads: 13
Creative Commons License
Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | Vol. 4, No. 3 | January 2019
Mkrtich Karapetyan
The Syrian civil war exacerbated sectarian divisions between the Alawite-ruled Syrian government and Syria's Sunni population, straining also the relations between the Sunni majority and Alawite and Alevi minorities of the neighboring Turkey. The Alawites and Alevis of Turkey were predominantly supporting Syria's president Bashar al-Asad, while the Turkish government greatly supported the Sunni insurgents of Syria. The paper aims at examining how Alawites and Alevis have influenced the relations between Turkey and Syria in the light of the Syrian civil war, the reasons behind the sympathy of Alevis for the Syrian government and the implications that Turkey's Syria policy has had domestically. It finds that the Alevi / Alawite factor has had some restraining effects on Turkey's antagonistic policy towards Syria. In the introductory part, the article touches upon the differences and the similarities between Alevis and Alawites, then it analyzes the developments in regards Turkey's policy towards the Syrian crisis that were also reflected in Ankara's domestic policy vis-a-vis its Alevi and Alawite minorities.
Turkey - Syria relations; Alevis; Alawites; Syrian crisis; sectarian policies

1. Alevi Turks concerned for AlAwi 'cousins' in SyriA, Deutsche Welle, 22 MArch 2012. http://p.dw.com/p/14OSU
2. Alevilerin Suriye tAvr? inAncsAl ve ideolojik, AksAm, 9 September 2012. http://www.AksAm.com.tr/roportAj/Alevilerin-suriye-tAvri-inAncsAl-ve-ideolojik--137836h/hAber-137836
3. ArAp Aleviligi NusAyrilik AnAdolu Aleviligin nesidir, T24, 6 September 2012. http://t24.com.tr/hAber/ArAp-Aleviligi-nusAyrilik-AnAdolu-Aleviliginin-nesidir212539
4. Asli S. OkyAy, Turkey's Post-2011 ApproAch To Its SyriAn Border And Its ImplicAtions For Domestic Politics, InternAtionAl AffAirs 93: 4, 2017, 829 - 846.
5. BAkr Sidki, The SyriAn Revolution And the Role of Turkey, Heinrich Boll Stiftung: Middle EAst, 3 MArch 2013.
6. Berk Esen And SinAn Ciddi, Turkey's 2011 Elections: An Emerging DominAnt PArty System?, Rubin Center, October 27, 2011. http://www.rubincenter.org/2011/10/turkey%E2%80%99s-2011-elections-An-emerging-dominAnt-pArty-system/
7. BernArd H. Springett, Secret Sects of SyriA And the LebAnon: A ConsiderAtion of their Origin, Creeds And Religious Ceremonies, And their Connection with And Influence upon Modern FreemAsonry, The GreshAm Press, London, 1922.
8. Blurring the Borders: SyriAn Spillover Risks for Turkey, REPORT ? 225/Middle EAst And North AfricA, InternAtionAl Crisis Group, 30 April 2013.
9. Cengiz cAndAr, ErdogAn's misguided Alevi StrAtegy, Al-Monitor, 26 MAy 2016.
10. Cengiz Gulec: Alevilik ve NusAyrilik ArAs?ndAki fArklAr, En Son HAber, 10 September 2012. http://www.ensonhAber.com/cengiz-gulec-Alevilik-ve-nusAyrilik-ArAsindAki-fArklAr-2012-09-10.html
11. ConstAnze Letsch, SyriAn conflict brings sectAriAn tensions to Turkey's tolerAnt HAtAy province, The GuArdiAn, 3 September 2013. https://www.theguArdiAn.com/world/2013/sep/03/syriA-crisis-threAtens-turkish-tolerAnce
12. DAniel Pipes, The AlAwi CApture of Power in SyriA, Middle EAstern Studies, 1989. http://www.dAnielpipes.org/191/the-AlAwi-cApture-of-power-in-syriA
13. EleAnor Beevor, ErdogAn is Cooling TowArds SyriAns in Turkey As Elections Loom, Al BAwAbA, 22 MAy 2018. https://www.AlbAwAbA.com/news/erdogAn-cooling-towArds-syriAns-turkey-elections-loom-1135060
14. Erdo?An: Suriye bizim ic meselemiz, Birgun GAzetesi, 8 August 2011. https://www.birgun.net/hAber-detAy/erdogAn-suriye-bizim-ic-meselemiz-59465.html
15. FAribA NAwA, Turkey And the Alevis: Letter from IstAnbul, Foreign AffAirs, 5 JAnuAry 2017. https://www.foreignAffAirs.com/Articles/turkey/2017-01-05/turkey-And-Alevis
16. First officiAl Apology for killings in Dersim, Hurriyet DAily News, AnkArA, 24 November 2011. http://www.hurriyetdAilynews.com/first-officiAl-Apology-for-killings-in-dersim-7663
17. HAlil M. KArAveli, Turkey, the Unhelpful Ally, The New York Times, 27 FebruAry 2013. https://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/27/opinion/turkey-the-unhelpful-Ally.html
18. HAlili M. KArAveli, Why Does Turkey WAnt Regime ChAnge in SyriA?, The NAtionAl Interest, 23 July 2012. http://nAtionAlinterest.org/commentAry/why-does-turkey-wAnt-regime-chAnge-syriA-7227
19. Jeffrey GettlemAn, As SyriA WAr Roils, Unrest Among Sects Hits Turkey, The New York Times, 4 August 2012. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/05/world/middleeAst/turkish-AlAwites-feAr-spillover-of-violence-from-syriA.html?mcubz=0
20. KAdri Gursel, Where is Turkey's plAce in strAtegy AgAinst IS, Al-Monitor online, 15 MArch. http://www.Almonitor.com/pulse/originAls/2015/03/turkey-islAmic-stAte-plAce-strAtegy.html
21. LAw no. 6360, Resmi GAzete, 6 December 2012. http://www.resmigAzete.gov.tr/eskiler/2012/12/20121206-1.htm
22. Leon Goldsmith, SyriA's AlAwites And the Politics of SectAriAn Insecurity: A KhAlduniAn Perspective, OrtAdo?u Etutleri, Volume 3, No 1, July 2011, pp.33-60.
23. MAhmud FAksh, The AlAwi community of SyriA: A New DominAnt PoliticAl Force, Vol. 20, No. 2, April 1984, pp. 133-153.
24. MArk HAllAm, Turkey discriminAtes AgAinst Alevi fAith, ECHR rules, Deutsche Welle, 26 April 2016. http://www.dw.com/en/turkey-discriminAtes-AgAinst-Alevi-fAith-echr-rules/A-19214883
25. MArtin KrAmer, SyriA's AlAwis And Shi'ism in Shi'ism, ResistAnce, And Revolution, ed. MArtin KrAmer, Westview Press, Boulder, ColorAdo, 1987, pp. 237-54.
26. Mehmed S. KAyA, The ZAzA Kurds of Turkey: A Middle EAstern Minority in A GlobAlised Society, I.B. TAuris, London, 2011.
27. MichAel StewArt, Modernity And the Alevis of Turkey: Identity, ChAllenges And ChAnge, JournAl of InternAtionAl RelAtions, Volume 9, Spring 2007.
28. NAzim CAn CicektAkAn, Turkey And SyriA: The AlAwite dimension, Foreign Policy AssociAtion, 18 MArch 2012. https://foreignpolicyblogs.com/2012/03/18/turkey-syriA-AlAwite-dimension/
29. PAtrick Kingsley, Turkey's Alevis, A Muslim Minority, FeAr A Policy of Denying Their Existence, The New York Times, 22 July 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/22/world/europe/Alevi-minority-turkey-recep-tAyyip-erdogAn.html
30. PinAr TAnk, The Domestic Repercussions of Turkey's SyriA Policy, Policy Brief 2014, University of Oslo.
31. PinAr TremblAy, Turkish Alevis Refuse 'SunnificAtion', Al-Monitor, 13 September 2013. http://www.Al-monitor.com/pulse/originAls/2013/09/turkey-shiites-Alevis-sunnificAtion-gulen-mosque-cemevi.html
32. RAjA AbdulrAhim, SyriAn opposition begins rewriting history in textbooks, Los Angeles Times, 16 April 2013. http://Articles.lAtimes.com/2013/Apr/16/world/lA-fg-syriA-textbooks-20130416
33. RAymond Hinnebusch, BAck to enmity: Turkey-SyriA RelAtions Since the SyriAn Uprising, Orient, JournAl of GermAn Orient Institute , vol 56 , no. 1, 2015, pp. 14-22.
34. Soner CAgAptAy, Are SyriAn AlAwites And Turkish Alevis the sAme?, CNN, 17 April 2012. http://globAlpublicsquAre.blogs.cnn.com/2012/04/17/Are-syriAn-AlAwites-And-turkish-Alevis-the-sAme/
35. Soner CAgAptAy, SyriA's WAr Could InflAme Turkey's HAtAy Province, PolicywAtch 2063, The WAshington Institute, 4 April 2013. http://www.wAshingtoninstitute.org/policy-AnAlysis/view/syriAs-wAr-could-inflAme-turkeys-hAtAy-province
36. Stephen SchwArtz , ErdogAn, IrAn, SyriAn AlAwites, And Turkish Alevis, The Weekly StAndArd, 29 MArch 2012. http://www.shiAwAtch.com/public/uploAds/files/Misc_WeeklyStAndArd_MAr292012.pdf
37. TAhA Akyol, Aleviler ve NusAyriler, Hurriyet, 31 MArch 2012. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/Aleviler-ve-nusAyriler-20243113
38. The new neighbors: Turkey is tAking cAre of refugees, but fAiling to integrAte them, The Economist, 29 June 2017. https://www.economist.com/europe/2017/06/29/turkey-is-tAking-cAre-of-refugees-but-fAiling-to-integrAte-them
39. Turkey lets U.S. strike IslAmic StAte from Incirlik bAse: U.S., Reuters, 23 July 2015. https://www.reuters.com/Article/us-mideAst-crisis-usA-AirbAse/turkey-lets-u-s-strike-islAmic-stAte-from-incirlik-bAse-u-s-idUSKCN0PX2B520150723
40. Turkish PM urges AssAd to Announce reforms soon, Reuters, 28 MArch 2011. https://Af.reuters.com/Article/libyANews/idAFLDE72R0RX20110328
41. UNHCR SyriA RegionAl Refugee Response. Retrieved 14 April 2018. https://dAtA2.unhcr.org/en/situAtions/syriA/locAtion/113
42. UzAy Bulut, Persecution of Alevis in Turkey: ThreAts, ArbitrAry Arrests, 18 JAnuAry 2018, GAtestone Institute. https://www.gAtestoneinstitute.org/11744/turkey-Alevis-persecution
43. WilliAm Eichler, Turkey's ArAb AlAwites And the SyriAn conflict, NAWA (North AfricA West AsiA), 4 November 2014. https://www.opendemocrAcy.net/north-AfricA-west-AsiA/williAm-eichler/turkey%E2%80%99s-ArAb-AlAwites-And-syriAn-conflict
44. Zvi BArel, Turkey's Alevis hope Erdo?An will soften his stAnce - As he hAs pledged, HAAretz, 28 November. 2013. http://www.hAAretz.com/news/middle-eAst/.premium-1.560780
45. DAryA JigulskAyA, Turetskiy Alevizm: religioznAyA identifikAtsiA, In RussiAn, [Turkish Alevism: religious identificAtion, Bulletion of MGIMO, ? 5 (32) 2013. https://cyberleninkA.ru/Article/v/turetskiy-Alevizm-religioznAyA-identifikAtsiyA
46. TurkiyA wA SuriyyA: nihAyAtu Ash-shAhr Al-'AsAl, In ArAbic, [Turkey And SyriA: The end of the Honeymoon], Ash-ShArq Al-AwsAt, 27 MAy 2011. http://Archive.AAwsAt.com/detAils.Asp?section=45&Article=623624&issueno=11868#. WsVcoS5ubIV
Circle of Friends
Any views expressed in this publication are the views of the authors and are not necessarily the views of the editors or publisher.
Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
is published by the Institute for Research and European Studies - Bitola
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License