Journal of Liberty and International Affairs 2021-01-08T12:40:14+01:00 Goran Ilik Open Journal Systems <p><span class="text14_333"><span class="blue16"><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>It welcomes submissions from political sciences, international relations, international law, and related fields. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches. <em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs</em></span></span> is <a href="">indexed/abstracted</a> in EBSCO, DOAJ, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIH PLUS, HeinOnline, ANVUR, Google Scholar, ProQuest, etc.</p> <hr /> <p>ISSN: <span class="grey121">1857-9760</span> (online)</p> <p>Submit Paper by Email:</p> <hr /> Cover Page and Table of Contents 2021-01-05T09:05:49+01:00 Journal of Liberty and International Affairs <p><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>It welcomes submissions from political sciences, international relations, international law, and related fields. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches. <em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs</em> is <a href="">indexed/abstracted</a> in EBSCO, DOAJ, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIH PLUS, HeinOnline, Index Copernicus, ANVUR, Google Scholar, ProQuest etc.</p> 2021-01-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EVOLUTIONARY POSSIBILITIES OF DEMOCRATIZATION AND ATAVISTIC NATIONALISM: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF UNRECOGNIZED STATES 2021-01-05T09:09:38+01:00 Hilmi Ulas <p><em>The question of how rising atavistic nationalism will affect democracies worldwide is an essential one of our time. In this paper, I focus instead on conducting a comparative historical analysis of atavistic nationalism in two unrecognized states: North Cyprus and Taiwan. I argue that the democratic crisis of our times is, in its essence, economic and has been precipitated by the failure of democracies to build domestic capacities to support democratic values. Furthermore, I posit that engaging populaces at the local political level will prove essential to preserving democracies around the world. I conclude by underlining that atavistic nationalism is indeed a significant threat to regional and global peace and requires further co-operation on trade and governance, and should be engaged at the local level. Lastly, I suggest that co-creating local cultures that will act to soften atavistic nationalism, which feeds off the perception of threats and fear. </em></p> 2021-01-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IMMIGRANT PLAYERS IN THE NATIONAL FOOTBALL TEAM OF GERMANY AND THE QUESTION OF NATIONAL IDENTITY 2021-01-05T09:14:44+01:00 Ahmet Görgen <p><em>This paper is based on the research related to the immigrant players in the national football team and the formation of national identity in Germany. Recent analyses reveal that the success of an immigrant player in the national sports team has been regarded as a useful factor to attract public attention to the contribution of immigrants to the progress of the country. During the matches, discourses coming from the fans depending on the result of the game. They target immigrant players as a scapegoat in the situation of loss. Indeed, this is visible in parallel with the increasing strong critics in the media against these immigrant players. In this paper, the case of Mesut Özil in the German National Football Team is analyzed. The case study offers evidence of whether the success of immigrant players has been an important factor for their inclusion in the national identity in Germany.</em></p> 2021-01-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ENERGY AND GEO-ECONOMICS: EVIDENCE UNDERPINNING RUSSIAN INTERVENTION IN SYRIA 2021-01-05T09:24:28+01:00 Nada El Abdi <p><em>Since September 2015 and the Russian military intervention in the country, the interests in Syria have been numerous and of great importance for the actors involved in this conflict. The interests in Syria are numerous and of great importance for the actors involved in this conflict. Russia, like the Allies and opponents of the Bashar Al-Assad regime, is fighting for geopolitical, geo-economic, or ideological reasons. The Middle East region finds itself shaken by the sharp resurgence of a confrontation between actors allied to the United States, other allies of Russia, and this Syrian crisis thus impacts the geopolitical configuration of the region. This paper presents an analysis of the Russian intervention strategy in Syria. We argue that Russia intervened in Syria to strengthen the already existing Russian-Syrian alliance, to curb extremist proliferation, and to take advantage of Syria's strategic position. The objective is to determine the reasons for the Russian military intervention in Syria related to energy and geo-economic interests. The Russian intervention in Syria was an ideal opportunity to draw closer to several powerful states in the region and a way to benefit from positive spin-offs on its arms market and hydrocarbon road plans. Despite the risks and costs associated with defending the Syrian regime, Moscow has secured its political and economic power in the Middle East.</em></p> 2021-01-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 DIVERGENCES FROM THE SEPARATION OF POWERS IN TIMES OF EMERGENCY WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS TO THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA 2021-01-05T09:29:02+01:00 Vesna Stefanovska <p><em>The worldwide pandemic caused by the coronavirus has disturbed the pure conception of the separation of powers. States forced by the newly established situation, declared a state of emergency, thus the Republic of North Macedonia was not an exception. This paper will focus on the divergences from the separation of powers in the countries from the Western Balkans and across Europe whose departure in the well-established system of checks and balances intrigued the media. The case of North Macedonia was maybe the most interesting because in time of declaring the state of emergency by the President of the Republic, the legislative branch of power – the Assembly was dissolute which meant that the already difficult situation became more complicated to establish a balance between the branches of power to function in protecting the general health of the citizens and the fundamental human rights and freedoms.</em></p> 2021-01-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 VIETNAM AND INDIA’S APPROACH TO THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION: IMPLICATION FOR BILATERAL RELATION PROMOTION 2021-01-05T17:54:19+01:00 Nguyen Thi Oanh Pham Thuy Nguyen <p><em>There have been tectonic shifts in the Indo-Pacific region, impacting relations among international actors, including traditionally close partners like Vietnam and India. By using the approach of realism and constructivism in international relations, this paper discusses Vietnam and India’s approach to the Indo-Pacific region to expand their substantive strategic relationship. The paper finds out that geopolitical changes in the Indo-Pacific directly influence the bilateral relation and create challenges as well as opportunities. By using the SWOT model, the paper analyzes driving factors and challenges to the Vietnam- India relations. Through the findings, it suggests both countries need to take advantages of the regional cooperation to further Vietnam-India’s strategic comprehensive partnership. </em></p> 2021-01-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 CHINA’S PUBLIC DIPLOMACY: EVOLUTION, CHALLENGES, AND THE GREEK CASE 2021-01-05T18:09:27+01:00 Georgios Zacharias <p><em>The construction of a positive international image is profoundly correlated with advancing one’s national interests abroad. Influencing foreign audiences and creating multisided links with countries of interest, is the main objective of public diplomacy. In the highly interconnected XXI century, countries have increasingly invested in that practice, assisted by major technological advancements. China is not an exception. The current paper will examine in which ways the latter conducts public diplomacy and through which actors. The study will also try to showcase the evolution and challenges that took place in this domain. Afterward, the case study of Greece will be considered, presenting the Chinese actors engaging in the country, the practices they use, and how the bilateral relationship has been affected. The essay will conclude with estimating the total effectiveness of the practices, possible challenges that exist, and several insights for future reference.</em></p> 2021-01-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 GEOPOLITICS OF NEAR-SPACE: INCREASING NATIONAL POWER THROUGH SPACEPLANE DEPLOYMENT 2021-01-06T13:57:22+01:00 Bekim Nuhija Sami Mehmeti Stefani Stojchevska <p><em>With the delimitation of airspace and outer space being a continuous issue, various arguments intend to analyze the viewpoint of the geopolitics of near-space being considered neither as part of Astropolitik, nor the geopolitics of airspace. Consequently, a comparative methodology in regards to the multidimensional objectives of geopolitics is followed: (1) evolving a theoretical military basis of spaceplane deployment; (2) examining the natural background of the geopolitics of near-space; (3) constructing the ‘history-future’ relation of the geopolitics of near-space; and (4) analyzing the increasing of America’s national power through spaceplane deployment. Principle results obtained from the theoretical comparative methodology consequently determine the fundamental establishment of the geopolitics of near-space.&nbsp; </em></p> 2021-01-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 THE ESCALATION OF CONFLICT BETWEEN ARMENIANS AND AZERBAIJANIS AND THE PROBLEMS OF PEACEFUL RESOLUTION OF THE NAGORNO-KARABAKH WAR 2021-01-06T14:03:05+01:00 Valeri Modebadze <p><em>This article explains why it is so difficult to achieve peace in Nagorno-Karabakh and what factors prevent the peaceful resolution of the conflict. This conflict is very difficult to resolve because the conflicting parties have contradictory geopolitical interests and cannot achieve consensus during negotiations.&nbsp; We have to take into account Russia’s geopolitical interests in South Caucasus that Kremlin is interested in freezing this conflict to weaken both states, Azerbaijan and Armenia, and bring them back to Russia’s orbit. Moscow aims to establish firm control over South Caucasus which was viewed in the past as a ‘Russian backyard’.&nbsp; Russia still views South Caucasus as its zone of influence and tries to bring this region back into Russia’s orbit.</em></p> 2021-01-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STANDARDS IN COMBATING CHILD ONLINE SEXUAL ABUSE AND EXPLOITATION 2021-01-06T14:07:08+01:00 Bistra Netkova Ariana Qosaj Mustafa <p><em>The g</em><em>eneral international standards are being discussed in this article, as well as more relevant ones concerned with the problem of sexual exploitation and child abuse. Further, the article discusses a growing understanding of children’s exposure to violence, strengthened commitments to secure their safety and protection, and significant international implementation efforts to mobilize support for prevention and response and to help change attitudes and behavior which condone violence against children. With the fast development of the internet and online social networks, the article ends with a conclusion in identifying criminal law benchmarks based on the previously identified general international standards.</em></p> <p><em> </em></p> 2021-01-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 CLASSICISM AND ORIENTALISM IN THE LIGHT OF THE NEW GLOBALIZATION THEORIES 2021-01-08T10:00:28+01:00 Ljuben Tevdovski Ile Masalkovski <p><em>The intense and dichotomous relationship between orientalism and classicism that has been created over the last decades of the XX century, reaches new dimensions through the rapid scientific growth, the discoveries of new historical sources and artifacts, and, most importantly, through the paradigms change in many scientific disciplines. This development is also influenced by the rapid and multifaceted societal transformations in the intensively globalizing world of the new millennium. In this context, the paper explores the new understandings of these two important conceptions in the research of the past, and their redefined scope and relation in the light of the globalization theories and through the paradigm of ancient globalization. </em></p> 2021-01-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021